Nvq2 Health and Social Care

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CU254 Causes and Spread of Infection
1. Understand the causes of infection.
1.1 Identify the differences between bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – a single cell micro-organism that gets its nutrition from its surroundings and can only be seen under a microscope. Viruses - are disease producing agents far smaller than bacteria. They are enclosed in a protein coating which makes them more difficult to destroy. Fungi – are included in the plant kingdom but are quite different from green plants. The basic unit of a fungus is a hypha which is a hollow tube. The hyphal threads spread out over and into the food material making a visible mesh or mycelium. Some fungi mass together to create toadstools. They spread by releasing spores into the environment. Parasites – an organism that feeds and is dependant of its host. 1.2 Identify common illnesses and infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Bacteria – Lyme disease, Tuberculosis, tetanus, MRSA (methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus) Viruses – polio, Norovirus, common cold, flu, chicken pox

Fungi – tinea pinus, athletes foot, oral thush
Paracites- worms, ticks, lice, mites
1.3 Describe what is meant by ‘infection’ and ‘colonisation’. Infection – is a invasion of a host organisms bodily tissues by a disease causing organism. Colonisation – occurs when any one or more species populate a specific area. 1.4 Explain what is meant by ‘systemic infection’ and ‘localised infection’. Systemic infection – affects a number of organs or tissues or affects the whole body e.g. type 2 diabetes, aids and hyper tension. Localised infection – confined to one organ system or area in the body e.g. absess, boil, sprain. 1.5 Identify poor practices that may lead to the spread of infection. Not wearing personal protective equipment such as disposable gloves, disposable aprons, washing hands and disposing of clinical waste in the correct way.

2. Understand the transmission...
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