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Proximate and Phyto Chemical Screening of CISSUS POPULNEA
ONOJAH, P.K., 2SALAWU, O.W., AND 3UMAR .S. CHEMISTRY DEPARTMENT, KOGI STATE UNIVERSTIY, P.M.B. 1008, ANYIGBA , KOGI STATE. NIGERIA. Abstract The work reports the chemical evaluation, nutritional and flavoring properties of Cissus Populnea. This spices contain crude protein (37% - 21%), crude fibre (23 — 22%), crude fat (3.10 — 20%), carbohydrate (16 — 24%) total ash content (2.0 — 3. 10%), Moisture (1.68 — 1.82%). The spices are sources of minerals comprising of calcium, Iron Zinc, Copper, Magnesium, Sodium and Potassium. phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids as well as hydrogen upanmides. These bloactive substances may be responsible for the biological properties of the plants. Key words: chemical composition, phytochemical screening. Introduction Nigeria is endowed with numerous varieties of useful plants whose fruits, seeds, stems, roots and leaves serve various important roles in medicine and in nutrition. Amongst the numerous varieties of plants are Cissus Populnea (Okoho), Cissus Sicyoides, cissus rheifolia, cissus pallida, cissus quadrangularis. Cissus Populnea belongs to the family of Vitaceae which are woody climber1, some times vines, rarely small succulent trees, Hermaphrodite or polygamonecious to polygamo-droecions2. It grows in diverse ecozones of Nigeria, ugada, Niger Republic, Cameroon and coted’ivoire3 The plant is a climbing stem widely distributed in many parts of Nigeria, especially within the guinea Savannah region of Anabara, Kogi and Benue Stat&4 The gala and Idoma ethnic group refers to this plant as okoho, ogbolo ajara (yoruba), dafaaraa (Hausa). It is used extensively in medicinal preparation in West Africa. Cissus Populnea and Sesamum radiatum are the two tropical medicinal plants used to correct male infertility factor in South-western part of Nigeria. Expert evaluations of these herbs found that they have antimicrobial activities which cure many sexually transmitted infections that could be responsible for male infertility. The 2009 edition of research journal of medicinal plants showed hat the essential oil from the stem powder of Cissus Populnea inhibit the growth of several germs of bacteria origin and as such may correct male infertility arising from bacteria infections. In Benin Republic, it is used as diuretic. Extracts from the root of the plant have been used for the treatment of skin disease, boils, infected wounds and for treating urinary trait infections, thus suggesting anti bacteria activity5 Cissuss Populnea_are muciIaginous Yielding a visci sap that form from a freshly cut stems. The root is used in part of Nigeria as an arrow-poison antidote6 It is usually powdered and added to “daddawar” batso (Hausa). All parts of Cissuss Populnea exudes a mucilaginous material traditionally utilized as food raw material5 Gum exudates are mainly obtained from the stem and root of the plant. Young tender leaves are equally mucilaginous and they have dual function of thickener and vegetable in soup(8). The gum obtained from Cissus Populnea has been evaluated for its potential uses as a dispersant in pharmcentical liquid system. Literature survey reveals that comprehensive physiochemical characterization of the gum has not been done. This study therefore, focuses on the phytochemical composition and proximate composition of the stem and root of the plants. nutritional values, physicochemical composition, 1

www.theinternationaljournal.org > RJSITM: Volume: 02, Number: 03, January-2013

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Material and methods Materials The Cissus populnea stems and roots were obtained from the forest at ugwolawo in Ofu Local Government Area of Kogi State. It was the thoroughly washed to remove the adhering dirts and foreign material. The fresh roots and stems were cut into five strips with a kitchen knife and were air dried. It was then reduced to a fine powder using mortar and sieve. The powdered samples were...
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