Meaning of Scientific Management

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Table of Contents

I. Introduction…………………………………………………….Pg. 2

II. Management Theories………………………………………….Pg. 3 - 6

1. Scientific Management…………………………………Pg. 3 & 4

2. Organisational Behaviour……………………………...Pg. 4 - 6

III. Leadership Styles……………………………………………...Pg. 6 - 9

1. Contingency Theory……………………………………Pg. 6 & 7

2. Team Leadership……………………………………….Pg. 8 & 9

IV. Quality Control…………………………………………………Pg. 10

1. Total Quality Management (TQM) ……… ……………… Pg. 10 - 12

2. Quality Circle (QC) .Pg. 10 -12……………………………Pg. 12

V. Conclusion………………………………………………….......Pg. 12

VI. References ……………………………………………………...Pg. 13 & 14

I. Introduction

The travel and tourism industry is similar to the other industries which require both educated and skilled managers to run the operations successfully. According to Heinz Weihrich and Harold Koontz ( 1993 ), management can be defined as all the activities and tasks undertaken by one or more persons for the purpose of planning and controlling the activities of others in order to achieve an objective or complete an activity that could not be achieved by the others acting independently. This assignment will also cover several kinds of management theories and leadership styles. Decision-making, problem solving, conflict and conflict resolution methods are reflected in each management theories and leadership styles respectively. On the second part, the concept of quality control and the use of quality control techniques also will be discussed.

II. Management Theories

1. Scientific Management
The term scientific management is the combination of two words i.e. scientific and management. The word "Scientific" means systematic analytical and objective approach while "management" means getting things done through others. Swati Gupta (2001) In a nutshell, scientific management means the application of principles and methods of science in the field of management. It is the art of knowing exactly what is to be done by whom it is to be done and what is the best and cheapest way of doing it. Prior to scientific management, work was performed by skilled craftsman who had learned their jobs in lengthy apprenticeships. They made their own decisions about how their job was to be performed. Scientific management took away much of this autonomy and converted skilled crafts into a series of simplified jobs that could be performed by unskilled workers who easily could be trained for the tasks. The four objectives of management under scientific management were as follows: * The development of a science for each element of a man's work to replace the old rule-of-thumb methods. * The scientific selection, training and development of workers instead of allowing them to choose their own tasks and train themselves as best they could. * The development of a spirit of hearty cooperation between workers and management to ensure that work would be carried out in accordance with scientifically devised procedures. * The division of work between workers and the management in almost equal shares, each group taking over the work for which it is best fitted instead of the former condition in which responsibility largely rested with the workers. Self-evident in this philosophy are organizations arranged in a hierarchy, systems of abstract rules and impersonal relationships between staff. Taylor’s system ensured the most efficient way to be used by all workers, therefore making the work process standard. Invariably managers found that maximal efficiency was achieved by a subdivision of labour. This subdivision entailed breaking the workers tasks into smaller and smaller parts. In short, “specifying not only what is to be done but how it is to be done and the exact time allowed for doing it” (Taylor 1998, p. 17).

George Ritzer in his book “The McDonaldization of Society” notes a similar philosophy in a McDonald’s staff manual, “It...
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