Some would define management as an art, while others would define it as a science. "Management is not an exact science, but rather is a mix of art, scientific methodology, intuition, investigation, and most of all, experimentation" (Miller & Vaughan, 2001, Winter). "Management is not static. It is evolving, as are people who manage and are managed."
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Management is necessary for several reasons. Two of the reasons are: a desired result must be established, and someone must be delegated, or assume the authority to obtain, organize, guide, and direct those resources toward the desired result Someone must 'manage' the entire process. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia) Management theory is important because it is the study of how to make all the people in you organization more productive. If you are self employed and have others working for you or you out-source certain jobs you are unable to do, then you know how hard it is to find qualified, competent professionals to provide you a service or work for you. You want to maximize labor productivity and learning how to manage people is the key .. The key to business management is to maximize productivity. However, while management theory does aim towards getting a group of entities to achieve a certain goal, it does not necessary achieve in making people more productive towards this cause.
Below is a document which presents the taxonomy (the practice and science of cfassification ) of ten management theories. The Management Theory Taxonomy
contains the name of the Theorist/Author, the Theory, and the significance/concept of the theory. Even though many of these theories were created and developed many years, they can still be applied today.
Mary Parker Organizations as
"Follett was part of an important transition from
classical thinking into behavioral management. She
viewed organizations as communities in which
managers and workers should labor in harmony
without one party dominating the other, and with
the freedom to talk over and truly reconcile conflicts
and differences. She also believed it was a
manager's job to help people in organizations
cooperate with one another and achieve an
integration of interests."
The Hawthorne Studies
(Conducted at Western
Works, Cicero. Illinois
from 1927 to 1932)
Schnermerhorn, J. R. (2010). Management (10th
The studies were conducted to "study individual
productivity and to determine how economic
incentives and physical conditions of the workplace
affected the output of workers. These experiments
examined the physical and environmental
influences of the workplace (lights, humidity) and
also the psychological aspects (breaks, group
pressure, working hours, managerial leadership)
and their impact on employee motivation as it
applies to productivity.
Relay Assembly Test-Room Studies - This study
examined the effect of worker fatigue on output. Six
workers who assembled relays were isolated for
intensive study in a special test room They were
given various rest pauses, as well as workdays and
workweeks of various lengths. Production was
regularly measured. Employee Attitudes,
Interpersonal Relations, and Group Processes -
These studies included employee attitudes,
interpersonal relations, and group dynamics.
Employees were interviewed to learn what they
liked and disliked about their work environment.
The Halo Effect. .. and
the Eight Other Business
Delusions That Deceive
Managers - (ships from
and sold by
Basically, the Hawthorne Effect, as it applies to the