Non Aligned Movement a Brief History
The Non Aligned Movement (NAM) is a foundation which has been created during the collapsed of the colonial system and the struggle for independence for the people of Asia, Africa, Latin America and other region of the world and at the height of Cold War. In the early stage of its foundation, NAM’s action were a key factor in the decolonisation process which later led to the attainment of freedom and independence by many countries and peoples and to the founding of tens of new sovereign states. NAM had played a fundamental role in preserving the world security and peace.
Heads of State and Government Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt, Kwame Nikrumah of Ghana, Shri Jawaharial Nehru of India Ahmad Sukarno of Indonesia and Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia are the founding fathers of NAM and its exemplary leaders. They are also the representatives of 5 main countries when the movement was formatted. It is believed by the historian that the Bandung Asian-African Conference in April 1955 as the most immediate predecessor to the creation of NAM, as it manage to gather 29 Heads of States belonging to the first post-colonial generation of leaders from the two continents. All of them have the same aim which is to identify and assessed the world issues at that time and pursuing out joint policies in international relations. The conference in Bandung 1955 has created the set of principles that would govern relation among large and small nation, it has been adopted later as the essential creation NAM and known as quintessence of the movement until the early 1990s’. The ten principles of Bandung are: *
Respect of fundamental human rights and of the objectives and principles of the Charter of the United Nations. *
Respect of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations. *
Recognition of the equality among all races and of the equality among all nations, both large and small. *
Non-intervention or non-interference into the internal affairs of another -country. *
Respect of the right of every nation to defend itself, either individually or collectively, in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. *
Non-use of collective defence pacts to benefit the specific interests of any of the great powers and non-use of pressures by any country against other countries. *
Refraining from carrying out or threatening to carry out aggression, or from using force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country. *
Peaceful solution of all international conflicts in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations. *
Promotion of mutual interests and of cooperation.
Respect of justice and of international obligations.
Subsequently, a preparatory meeting for the First NAM Summit Conference was held in Cairo, Egypt from 5-12 June 1961. At this meeting, participants discussed the goals of a policy of nonalignment, which were adopted as criteria for membership. These were as follows: a.
The country should have adopted an independent policy based on the coexistence of States with different political and social systems and on non-alignment or should be showing a trend in favour of such a policy; b.
The country concerned should be consistently supporting the Movements for national independence; a.
The country should not be a member of a multilateral military alliance concluded in the context of Great Power conflicts; b.
If a country has a bilateral military agreement with a Great Power, or is a member of a regional defence pact, the agreement or pact should not be one deliberately concluded in the context of Great Power conflicts; c.
If it has conceded military bases to a Foreign Power the concession should not have been made in the context of Great Power conflicts. Now in as per July 2011, the membership of NAM had increased to 120 countries which are Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Antigua...
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