Low Carbon Society

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1.0Introduction
1.1Background of the study
Nowadays every single country in the world care about climate change. All countries focus on sustainable development which involve low carbon society concept. The question is what is sustainable development and low carbon society? Sustainable development is eco-friendly development and low carbon society is society that consumes sustainable and relatively low carbon energy as compared with our present day to avoid adverse climate change. Malaysia also participates in this program in order to reduce carbon emission to avoid climate change. In this research we focus on how to transformed Iskandar Malaysia to low carbon society city in 2025. In order to know the details about how to transform Iskandar Malaysia, we implement some of the research done by other develop countries. For example Japan. They have make research on low carbon society. “A Roadmap towards Low Carbon Kyoto” is one of the research made in japan by Research Team of Sustainable Society Kyoto to transform Kyoto city to low carbon society city in 2030. From this input we can take suitable action that has been use at Kyoto city to apply at Iskandar Malaysia. But not all action that has been done in others country is suitable to applied at our country. In order to make Iskandar Malaysia as low carbon society city we need to find the suitable solution to apply at Iskandar Malaysia. The amount of CO2 emission per capita (9.3 t-CO2) in Iskandar Malaysia is higher than national average of Malaysia (5.0 t-CO2). Urbanization is the main factor of this problem. Malaysia committed in order to reduce carbon emission. In COP 15 (2009) , Malaysia prime minister; YAB Dato’ Seri Mohd Najib Tun Abdul Razak , has pledged a voluntary 40% reduction of CO2 emission intensity by 2020. Under the Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011-2015); The Government has intensified effort to reduce emission by climate adaption and mitigation measure.

1.3Objectives
To know what is low carbon society and its important
To analysis the current situation of carbon intensity at Iskandar Malaysia with other city in the world that applies low carbon society concept. To know which part in the society that emits highest carbon to atmosphere. To find the solution to reduce carbon emission to atmosphere. To find out the current practices of resource conservation.

1.4Scope of the study
The scopes of study are to analysis and find the ways to reduce 43.08% carbon emission in Iskandar Malaysia in 2025. This research is use “forecasting” method, where the current scenario is analyzed to estimate the future scenario. The estimation of carbon emission at Iskandar Malaysia in 2025 is 45.5 million tones CO2. Basically for the first stage, scope of our study just refers to the entire world’s opinion about the low carbon society. And then, we limit it to Asian countries since it will ease us to find the scenario that happens now.

2.0Literature Review
2.1Definition of Low Carbon Society
In simple terms, a low‐carbon society is a society that consumes sustainable and relatively low carbon energy as compared with our present day practice to avoid adverse climate change. Hence conscious efforts need to be taken by community, industry, institution and government to change their behavior towards energy consumption and supply. The Society will adopt a lifestyle that make more use of alternative renewable energy, less dependence on fossil fuel and practice 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle) in their everyday life. The working definition for policy research and action of a low‐carbon society (National Institute for Environmental Studies, 2006) should have the following attributes: i.Take actions that are compatible with the principles of sustainable development, ensuring that the development needs of all groups within society are met. ii. Make an equitable contribution towards the global effort to stabilize the atmospheric...
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