Literature Review, Action Research

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3. Literature Review

Within the last decade in particular, there have been many reports which identify the need to improve questioning which takes place within the classroom and the importance of using them to stretch and challenge learners.

“Questions play an important role in the processes of teaching and learning because children’s achievement, and their level of engagement, depend on the types of questions teachers formulate and use in a classroom”. (Kerry, 2002).

Effective questioning of learners should be applied in everyday teaching with one particular method being incorporated which is referred to as the ‘Pose, Pause, Pounce and Bounce’ technique. This technique was first introduced as a strategy of Assessment for Learning which moves through Blooms Taxonomy. (Morrison-MacGill, 2013).

Benjamin Bloom’s taxonomy is valuable when determining the types of questions that teachers should ask their students. Bloom stated that there are six different levels of thinking: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation (Cruickshank, 2009, p. 168-69). In describing these six different levels of comprehension, also called the cognitive domain, Bloom stated that the first three were representative of low-order thinking, or content, whereas the last three were representative of high-level thinking, or process. Effective teachers appeal to each level of thinking to encourage students to draw conclusions, relationships, and applications of information they receive during class.

In the planning process, the teacher may consider different types of questions for the different types of learning which they will pose.

Once posed, they need to pause and allow the students sufficient time in which to respond. “Using wait time allows students to establish a certain level of comfort in the classroom and encourages them to voice their personal opinions more freely” (Cruickshank, 2009, p. 373).

This suggestion is also supported by...
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