Assignment 1: A literature Review (2500 words essay)
Companies conduct business research in order to acquire useful information which helps to make valuable decisions. Business decisions need to be based on sound information, analysed scenarios, and possible options. In this occasion, research might be an important step to avoid a business from failing and undertaking wrong steps in terms of future plans and strategy. Hence, appropriate research may provide a basis for companies decide whether to expand internationally, selling products in a foreign market or to enter collaboration with another company. So, in current global business world the organisational research has become more complex due to a shift from domestic to international research. However, research crossing national borders entails various challenges. Across different cultures around the world, research findings within one region can be interpreted differently in another region. Therefore, researchers need to be aware of methodological issues when conducting for instance surveys etc. within a cross cultural context. In general, organisational research methods are determined by a number of influences ranging from “organizational, historical, political, ethical, and evidential to personal factors” (Buchanan and Bryman 2009, pp. 1-6). The main aim of this essay is to critically assess the survey-based research method in the context of organisational research by critically reviewing relevant literature. However, to illustrate the relevance of the field of International Human Resource Management (IHRM) and the cross cultural context, an overall connection to surveys as a research designs will also be made. The literature review draws on a range of articles and relevant literature utilise different research designs comprising surveys both quantitative and qualitative and mixed methods approach. However, the prime focus seems to be laid on surveys. In the organisational research setting surveys can be used to acquire data and information on a topic which is being investigated. A vast literature seems to exist on survey-based research and how it is useful for explaining coherences in the context of international human resource management. However, international researchers face different challenges in terms of conducting research and its interpretation across issues related to international human resource management. The literature under review will be focusing on material which demonstrates methodological questions facing international researchers. In some cases, researchers use triangulation which refers to a mixed method approach adopted in a research project. This might help to gather a more complex set of data which tends to be more wide-ranging than solely rely on either qualitative or quantitative data (Saunders 2009). In addition to that, according to Buchanan and Bryman (2009) the mixed methods research has become a increasingly popular research approach in the field of organisation and management. Hence, some writers suggest that, through the combination of both, qualitative and quantitative methods the research tends to be superior to a mono method approach (Buchanan and Bryman 2009) and the overall understanding of complex research issues might be greater (Saunders 2009). Some of the studies under review (Vallaster 2005, Martin-Alcazar et al. 2011, Van de Vijver and Leung 2008) are based on a multiple mode rather than relying on a single method. That may be related to the above mentioned reasons. Furthermore, this paper discusses possible methods available when using survey-based research. According to Saunders et al. (2009) the research question always plays a vital role when selecting an appropriate method because it helps to address the objectives and finally draw a conclusion when the research question seems to be answered. Moreover, different types of surveys can be used when undertaking research. Surveys can be administered in a...
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