Like all PESCS, there are two types of Liberal Democracy:
1. Theoretical or Direct Democracy (DD)
2. Practical or Indirect Democracy (ID)
DD is a concept whereby all members of society take part in all aspects of decision taking in that society. While this may work in smaller communities, the larger a group or community becomes, the more difficult it is to include everyone’s opinion. In DD, there are also no restrictions as to who may take part in the decision taking. In other words, there are no age, citizenship or other restrictions. This is why DD is considered theoretical. Characteristics of ID
ID is the practical form of Liberal Democracy. ID has the following characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
8. 9. 10.
A Constitution and set of laws and principles democratically determined & equally applied Citizens with the right to vote & participating in all areas of governance A democratically elected leader or executive
A democratically elected law making body or legislature
An independent court system or judiciary with right to appeal decisions Open & transparent decision taking by all elected, appointed & hired officials Accountable governing institutions & remedies/redress for citizens’ complaints Regular elections for all public offices
Active political parties
Free, active, critical and competitive media & press
￼As you can see, IDs are citizen participation intensive (CPI). CPI means that all citizens must play an active role in their democracy. They must be well informed and well educated on all the issues in their democracy. For this reason, IDs are quite fragile and difficult to get started. Forms of Liberal Democracy
ID has three (3) major forms:
1. Prime Minister-Parliamentary Democracy: Executive and legislative functions are combined with the leader or “Prime Minister” coming from the party with the largest representation in the legislature. Prime Minister is the executive. A President or Constitutional and...