Institue of English & American Studies
Classroom Reserach Paper
Szeged, 2009. április 30.
Table of Contentspage
Research Question and the Observation Instrument6
Appendix 1Observation Sheet
Appendix 2Observation Sheets of Five Attended Classes
The topic of this classroom research paper is lesson planning. Planning is a crucial point in teaching as general and in second language teaching as well. Teachers-to-be are taught that they always have to have a lesson plan: either written or just a plan in the head. The plan does not only make it easier for the teacher to keep a logical order for themselves, but it also ensures that the students will be able to follow the logic of the lesson. A lesson plan should be coherent and consistent, thus there should be a logical transition between ideas. In the first chapter I would like to talk about the general issues of a lesson plan, then I would like to examine the theory of planning an English lesson, with special interest in grammar and vocabulary teaching and discuss some planning ideas that I have found during my bibliographical research. Finally, in the third part of this paper I would like to analyze the data I have collected during my classroom observations and draw a conclusion about the way theory manifests in everyday teaching.
When teachers are planning an English lesson, they always have a topic (e.g. some kind of grammar point or vocabulary), and if this topic is new, coherence and consistence, in other words a logical structure, is crucial for the students’ efficient acquirement of the given topic. Teachers can turn to several aids in this area: source- and handbooks suggest numerous ways to set up a lesson, but it is generally accepted that a lesson has to have an introduction, a discussion and a proper ending or conclusion.
In Sourcebook for TEFL by Lewis and Hill we are given a very general, basic lesson structure. Lewis and Hill divides the lesson into the following parts: introduction, presentation, exploitation and fillers. They claim that this lesson-plan will provide the basis for any kind of lesson. As I have mentioned, Lewis and Hill in their book’s 6th chapter Your Basic Lesson divides a lesson into three stages: a) introduction, b) presentation, and c) exploitation. They explain that making a full lesson plan is always useful, but of course the three parts may not be as distinct in practice as the plan suggests. But it can definitely provide the teacher with a coherent way of prepaing for any lesson. According to them introduction is important because students might not be fully alert when they arrive into English class, they are probably not “tuned in” to English. Lewis and Hill suggest the teacher should intoduce the topic of the lesson by some teacher talking time — and they add one more piece of advice: “personalize, don’t generalize”. The teacher should talk about the topic from his or her own point of view, experience or interest, if the teacher can talk about the topic, it is already reasonable to ask the students to do the same. Lewis and Hill emphasise that introduction is very important, because it sets the context for the topic, but at the same time it should not consume more than five minutes of the lesson. They strongly suggest to try not to miss it out, because introduction can raise the students’ interest, introduce some of the key vocabulary and some ideas that would come up later on. Done well the introduction can make the rest of the lesson much more animated and productive, if the teacher’s enthusiasm can enthuse the students as well. Lewis and Hill suggest teachers to make sure that in each lesson something is...