The father of scientific management Taylor's (1911) approach to job satisfaction was based on a most pragmatic & essentially pessimistic philosophy that man is motivation by money alone. That the workers are essentially 'stupid & phlegmatic' & that they would be satisfied with work if they get higher economic benefit from it. But with the passage of time Taylor's solely monetary approach has been changed to a more humanistic approach. It has come a long way from a simple explanation based on money to a more realistic but complex approach to job satisfaction. New dimensions of knowledge are added every day & with increasing understanding of new variables & their inter play, the field of job satisfaction has become difficult to comprehend. The term job satisfaction was brought to limelight by Hoppock (1935). He reviewed 32 studies on job satisfaction conducted prior to 1933 & observed that job satisfaction is a combination of psychological, physiological & environmental circumstances that cause a person to say. 'I am satisfied with my job'. Locke defines job satisfaction as a "pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences". To the extent that a person's job fulfils his dominant need & is consistent with his expectations & values, the job will be satisfying. Job Satisfaction - Theory
One way to define satisfaction may be to say that it is the end state of feeling. The word 'end' emphasises the fact that the feeling is experienced after a task is accomplished or an activity has taken place whether it is highly individualistic effort of writing a book or a collective endeavour of constructing a building. These activities may be minute or large. But in all cases, they satisfy a certain need. The feeling could be positive or negative depending upon whether need is satisfied or not & could be a function of the effort of the individual on one hand & on the other the situational opportunities available to him. This can be better understood by taking example of a foreman in an engineering industry. He has been assigned the task to complete a special order by a certain, deadline. Person may experience positive job satisfaction because he has been chosen to complete the task. It gives him a special status & feeling that he has been trusted and given a special task, he likes such kind of rush job and it may get him extra wages. The same could be the sources of his dissatisfaction if he does not like rush work, has no need for extra wages. Each one of these variables lead to an end state of feeling, called satisfaction. Sinha (1974) defines job satisfaction an 'a reintegration of affect produced by individual's perception of fulfillment of his needs in relation to his work & the situations surrounding it'. Theories of Job - Satisfaction :
There are 3 major theories of job satisfaction.
(i) Herzberg's Motivation - Hygiene theory.
(ii) Need fulfilment theory.
(iii) Social reference - group theory.
Herzberg's Motivation - Hygiene Theory :
This theory was proposed by Herzberg & his assistants in 1969. On the basis of his study of 200 engineers and accountants of the Pittsburgh area in the USA, he established that there are two separate sets of conditions (and not one) which are responsible for the motivation & dissatisfaction of workers. When one set of conditions (called 'motivator') is present in the organisation, workers feel motivated but its absence does not dissatisfy them. Similarly, when another set of conditions (called hygiene factors) is absent in the organisation, the workers feel dissatisfied but its presence does not motivate them. The two sets are unidirectional, that is, their effect can be seen in one direction only. According to Herzberg following factors acts as motivators:
• Achievement,• Recognition,• Advancement,• Work itself,• Possibility of growth, &•...