As prescribed in Karaseks demand model, the characteristics of of the job design can determine strain levels. The industry and design of the job can affect the perception of autonomy.(Kreis,2001). Previous studies assumed that the term of employment,that being temporary versus full-time had negative affects on the workers well-being. However if autonomy is mediated according to the level of employment the there is no significant difference in employee attitudes to the job. Contract type does not affect autonomy.
The domain of job satisfaction has been throroughly researched in past literature. It was labelled as one of the 6 dimensions of Perhaps the most widely known job characteristic scales are developedby Turner and Lawrence (1965), later reviewed by Hackman and Lawler (1971), who described autonomy as one of the 6 dimensions of job characteristics, and of these 6, 4 of them were considered core characteristics that being.
In this study the method used to measure Job autonomy will be the Job Autonomy Scale (JAS; Sims, Szilagyi, & Keller, 1976). The JAS measures whether employees believe they have substantial input regarding scheduling their work and determining work-related procedures. The scales are based on what employees perceive to be there level of control. Perception varies depending on the personality construct. The level of autonomy a manager percievs to be allowing the sub-ordinate may be different to the level of autonomy the sub-ordinate believes they have.
Job autonomy can be defined as the control influence, participation and authority that one has over their environment. (Porter,1963).
More then 100 studies ion the years between 1953-1973 found that workers "want to become masters...