by I - Wei Chang and Brian H. Kleiner How to Conduct Job Analysis Job Analysis is a systematic process of obtaining valid job information to aid management in decision-making. Each component of this definition is critical; for example “systematic process” means the job analysis is carefully planned to meet specific objectives. Systematic process is implemented in such a manner that it ensures employee co-operation, and utilises job analysis methods that are acceptable within the human resource management field. The word “valid” indicates the method by which the information was obtained for job analysis is accurately followed. Sometimes when job analysis is inadequately conducted, it results in incomplete or inaccurate information. “Valid” also means the information obtained meets the purpose for which the job analysis was conducted. Finally, job analysis provides critically important information that will guide management in decision-making. In this article, the result of job analysis will be used in job evaluation and decision-making of compensation. The purpose of job analysis is to elicit information pertaining to various types of jobs. H. E. Roff and T.W. Watson (1961) of Management Selection Services Ltd suggests two stages: “(1) to collect and record evidence of the nature of the job; (2) to sift this recorded data to discover those aspects of the job which are important in relation to the problems which have prompted the undertaking of the job analysis”. Most importantly, the need to gain the trust, confidence, and co-operation of those whose jobs are being placed under scrutiny. The job analyst is naturally perceived by others with suspicion since his/her investigations are going to be used as the basis for job evaluation. It would be easy for him/her to be regarded as an enemy because his/her reports could lead to an undermining of an individual’s status, relative pay; and organisational position. Good communication is essential. People should be elucidated as to the purpose of the exercise, the reasons why it is necessary, what it is hoped will be achieved, ways in which information obtained will be collated and processed, and how decisions affecting their jobs will be arrived at. It is better for them to be invited either directly or through representatives to contribute to the formation of that policy and its execution. Sifting the important from the trivial aspects of a job during and after analysis is really what the whole exercise is about. Attention finally should be directed at the significant differences between jobs, having first collected all the relevant information necessary to form a complete picture of any particular unit of work. There are no hard and fast rules that can be applied; at
How to Conduct Job Analysis Effectively
Volume 25 Number 3 2002
How to Conduct Job Analysis Effectively
root it is a matter of judgement. A common danger is to collect too much information, making it difficult to see the wood for the trees. On the whole, this is a more common pitfall than making just a cursory examination and ending up with a sketchy, incomplete picture. In making the analysis, if a fact is unimportant, it should immediately be discarded. To provide a framework on which to structure both the analysis and the information obtained, it is useful to look at the job from two points of view: first, the duties and responsibilities entailed; second, the skills and personal attributes necessary for the successful execution of that job. What an individual does and what personal attributes he needs to bring to the job provide us with the dimensions critical for making evaluative decisions between the relative worth of one job and another. The main steps in the process of job analysis can be set out as follows: * Identify and isolate the component tasks in a job Some jobs may consist of a large number of tasks and sub-tasks, and it may be convenient to...