April 29, 2013
School Psychologist Job Analysis
A job analysis is used to assess and describe jobs and the characteristics that would be most suited for that job; these are usually conducted by an industrial/organizational psychologist. To gather this information either a job-oriented, a person-oriented approach, or a combination of both is utilized. The job-oriented approach is used to describe the tasks that are necessary to complete a particular job. In contrast, the person-oriented approach gathers information about the characteristics someone would need to possess to effectively do the job in question; this includes gathering information about the knowledge, abilities, skills, and other personal characteristics (e.g. being organized) an individual would need to be most effective in the job being analyzed. This paper will analyze the job of a school psychologist using the task inventory job analysis method. The information gathered from a job analysis can be used for numerous purposes, but for the purpose of this paper only selection and vocational counseling will be discussed. It will then go on to discuss objective and subjective measures used to appraise an individual’s performance in being a school psychologist. It will finally discuss the pros and cons of these appraisal methods. Gathering Information for a Job Analysis
Information for a job analysis can be gathered in numerous ways by various people. Information can be gathered by a job analysts, a supervisor, the person who holds the position be analyzed, or by trained observers (Spector, 2008). The various methods used to collect this information from one of the four people previously mentioned include preforming the job, observing the employees at work, interviewing the supervisor or the person that holds the job, or administering a questionnaire; these methods can also be combined so that the limitations of one method can be countered by the strengths of another (Spector, 2008). Performing the job can give a job analyst insight to the tasks that are required to do a job, but can be time consuming and expensive; therefore, it is rarely used. Job analysts or trained observers can observe employees at work to gather information about the job by completing forms that lists various activities. The observer must record how often the employee completes each activity. This, however, can also be time consuming and expensive (Spector, 2008). Interviewing supervisors and the people who hold the job are the most popular way to collect information for a job analysis, which gives the person doing the job analysis a list of the tasks involved in the job being analyzed. The most effective way to collect the information for a job analysis is to administer a questionnaire. This is the most effective way because “it can contain hundreds of questions about the job and can be administered easily to thousands of employees” (Spector, 2008, p. 63). Task Inventory Method
As previously discussed, the methods used to conduct a job analysis use one or more of the sources and ways of collecting the information needed for the job analysis. The task inventory job analysis method uses a questionnaire that lists specific tasks that may be completed for the job being analyzed and at least one rating scale for each task listed on the questionnaire (Spector, 2008). This questionnaire is given to the person that holds the job; usually to numerous people who hold the same job. This is done because some people that have the same job title spend different amounts of time on certain tasks and a task inventory can help provide an average of the importance or time spent completing various tasks (Spector, 2008). Results of a Job Analysis for a School Psychologist
School psychologists deal with “principles of clinical psychology and educational psychology” that are “used for analyzing children’s behavioral and learning problems and...