Jahangir Khan

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T324: Keeping ahead in information and communication
Technologies: Tutorial 11
Reminder about Final Exam Format:
* The final exam will be based on all course material including the Blocks and Block Articles plus 2 exam articles/papers/publications that will be provided to students prior to exam for self-study at home. Adequate time will be given to students to study the 2 exam articles. * Students will only be allowed to bring a pen and calculator to the exam center. The calculator must not contain inside it anything related to the course. The exam will be ‘closed book’ which means that course block materials/block articles as well as the 2 exam articles will not be allowed/provided during the exam in the exam center. * The exam will be of 3 hours duration.

* The exam will have 3 parts.
* Part 1 (worth about 12% of marks) will have MCQ and Fill-in-the-blanks questions. * Part 2 (worth about 28% of marks) will have shorter numerical and brief description questions. * Part 3 (worth about 60% of marks) will have longer numerical and detailed description questions requiring extensive writing and numerical problem solving skills on part of students for a level 3 course. This part may contain questions related to the 2 exam articles/papers/publications in addition to the regular course blocks and block articles.

Information related to the 2 exam articles/papers/publications: * These 2 exam articles will be provided to students at least 2 weeks prior to exam for self-study at home. * Students will be expected to study and grasp an understanding of the material contained in the 2 exam articles. * The 2 exam articles will not be allowed/provided inside the exam center just like the regular course block material and block articles are not allowed/provided inside exam centers. Hence the exam articles can be viewed as an extension of the regular course material. * The type of questions related to the 2 exam articles will be similar to the various activity questions in Block 2, Part 2 which are related to the block articles.

MTA Format:
The MTA will have the same format as that of final exam with following exceptions: 1. The duration of MTA will not be 3 hours.
2. Students will not be given any extra MTA articles/papers/publications (however, regular block articles will be part of MTA and students will be assessed in information related to these block articles along with regular block materials).

End of reminder
Back to the blocks
Block 3, Information and communication technologies in context, Parts 1 and 2

Part 1 Keeping ahead by avoiding failure

1 Socio-technical systems and failures

2.1 Introduction

Concept of socio-technical system:
Systems usually comprise:
1. social,
2. organisational and
3. technical elements.
All three had to be configured together if the whole was to be successful.

Systems Failure:
In this part of the course we are going to use it as a way of examining systems failure and potential failures.

Criteria:
* Usually, there are many criteria that the project is expected to satisfy, relating to function, cost, timeliness and so on. * Assessing whether the project has succeeded or failed is a matter of evaluating it against these criteria, and there is always room for judgement, especially if the criteria contain terms like ‘satisfactory’, ‘sufficient’, ‘usable’ and so on.

2.2 Intelligent transport systems
* We will begin investigating socio-technical systems in the context of intelligent transport systems. This is a grandiose title for transport systems that embody information and communication technologies. It encompasses, for example, road-pricing systems, in which the locations of vehicles are monitored so that their use of the roads can be recorded and a charge levied; and it includes such apparently simpler systems as the variable message systems used on motorways, and ‘live’ information...
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