Genetics

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Grade 12 Biology: Molecular Genetics

Review Questions
The unit test will be composed of three sections.
Part A: Study Notes. You will create study notes to completely and correctly answer ALL of the review questions. You will submit your study sheets before the test. (10 marks) Part B: Short Answer Questions (25-30 marks).

Part C: Critical Thinking Questions (10-15 marks)

Part B: Short Answer Questions

1. Define heterozygous/homozygous/phenotype/genotype/dominant/recessive.

2. Why should you make study notes every night?

3. What is a Punnett square? How is it used?

4. How is DNA used in crime scene investigations?
a. What is the structure of DNA? What is a nucleotide? b. How does DNA replicate? Compare the formation of leading and lagging strands. c. What is PCR (polymerase chain reaction)? How has it changed crime scene investigations? d. What is DNA fingerprinting?

5. How is DNA different in different species?

6. How does DNA determine how you look?
a. What is transcription?
b. What is translation?
c. What is the role of DNA, mRNA and tRNA and amino acids in protein synthesis? d. What is the amino acid sequence of the protein that would be synthesized after transcription and translation of the following piece of template strand DNA?

|5' |3' |codon translations | |_____________________ | |Codon |amino acid | |T C A T G C G C A A C A | |AGU |Ser | | | |ACG |Thr | | | |CGU |Arg | |...
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