Human Genetics

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* Introduction:
In an increasing globalized world, the impact of scientific discoveries and application quickly transcends national boundaries through the rapid exchange of products and ideas. All scholars predict that Genetics will be the foremost science of the 21st century. Technologies and resources generated by the human genome project and other genomics research are already having a major impact on research across the life sciences. By genetic science the legislators and judges easily understand criminal behavior. They also predict that for what reason the guilty person has occurred such occurrences. Genetic tests will flood the courtroom with evidence purporting to support medical and non-medical cases alike. So the legislators and judges of different countries should be ready to encounter the future challenges ensuring from genetic development. How will law respond to new discoveries in genetics, including behavioral genetic determinism and to what extent the relation between genetics and behavior affect legal doctrines related to privacy, autonomy, nondiscrimination and societal opportunities? What will happen to concepts of free will and responsibilities in an era of genetic causation? Is a predisposition for colon cancer a legally justified reason to bar a person from mortgage insurance? The success of genetics in understanding human disease suggests that it could be a powerful tool in the scientific investigation of human behavior, including criminal behavior. This paper describes the impact of genetics on human behavior, specifically criminal behavior. If any individual commits crime due to genetically inherited traits, how his responsibility will be determined, how he will be punished, or should he be punished, or should they be treated like insane persons without having any criminal responsibility? Criminal justice system should be reorganized for dealing with emerging genetics and impact on criminal activities. * Concept of Human Genetics:

* What is Human Genetics?
In human and other higher organisms, A DNA molecule (Deoxribo Neuclic Acid) consists of two ribbon-like strands that wrap around each other, resembling a twisted ladder. The ladder rungs are made up of chemicals called bases abbreviated A, T, C and G. Each rung consists of a pair of bases, either A and T or C and G. We have three billion base pairs (six billons bases) of DNA in most of our cells; this is our genome. With the exception of identical twins, the sequence of bases-the order of As., Is, Cs and Gs-is different for everyone, which is what makes each of us unique. Variation in base sequence, alone with environmental factor, accounts for all our diversity, including disease. The DNA making up our genome is divided into tightly coiled packets called chromosomes (heredity or genetic determiner) the complete human genome is packaged into 46 pieces of DNA called chromosomes. Human receive a set of 23 chromosomes from each parent. A complete set of 46 chromosomes is found in almost every one of our trillions of cells. Most cell types-skin, bone, hair, brain, heart-contain a complete human genome. Which reside in the nucleus of each cell? Each chromosome is a single DNA molecule, and lengths from 50 million to 250 million bases. A set of 23 contains 22 numbered chromosomes (1-22) plus either an X or Y sex determining chromosome. Female receive an X from each parent, and male get one X and one Y. Sperm and egg cells only have 23 chromosomes. A unifying fact of human genetics is that all humans have genomes-the complete set of our genetic instructions on the 23 pairs of chromosomes within each of us-that are 99.99 percent identical in sequences. So although each one of our cells contain about six billions base pairs of DNA, three billion of each parent, we think that our differences are determined by only about one base pair in each thousand which at the most fundamental level of molecular definition distinguishes us. However, it is...
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