International Phonetic Alphabet (Ipa)

Topics: International Phonetic Alphabet, Diacritic, Phonetics Pages: 2 (561 words) Published: January 27, 2013
The IPA was first published in 1888 by the Association Phonétique Internationale (International Phonetic Association), a group of French language teachers founded by Paul Passy. The aim of the organization developed with the intention of enabling students and linguists to learn and record the pronunciation of languages accurately, thereby avoiding the confusion of inconsistent, conventional spellings and a multitude of individual transcription systems. One aim of the IPA was to provide a unique symbol for each distinctive sound in a language—that is, every sound, or phoneme, that serves to distinguish one word from another.. IPA Source is the largest collection of literal translations and International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) transcriptions on the web. The goal of IPA Source is to promote the comprehension and accurate pronunciation of foreign language texts in art song and opera in order that the singer may imbue each syllable with the appropriate emotional content. IPA Source offers works in Latin, Italian, German, and French and plans to include more "singing" languages in the future. The database currently includes over 5500texts. PA primarily uses Roman characters; other letters are borrowed from different scripts (e.g., Greek) and are modified to conform to Roman style. Diacritics are used for fine distinctions in sounds and to show nasalization of vowels, length, stress, and tones. The concept of IPA was first broached by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy of the International Phonetic Association and was developed by A.J. Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, and Passy in the late 19th century. The IPA can be used for broad and narrow transcription. For example, in English, there is only one t sound distinguished by native speakers. Therefore, only one symbol is needed in a broad transcription to indicate every t sound. If there is a need to transcribe narrowly in English, diacritic marks can be added to indicate that the t’s in “tap,” “pat,”...
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