TITLE: INDIVIDUAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE AND RESPONSES TO CHANGE
Table of Contents
Other forms of changes9
Responses to Change12
Change has various definitions but one underlying factor about change is that it is the transformation from a status quo position, to a new position. This new position can either be positive or negative.
Human beings undergo changes in many ways in their lives. The most notable changes that individuals undergo are the developmental changes as an individual grows and passes through the various stages of growth. These are as detailed below:- 1. Infancy: Birth to 18 Months
Ego Development Outcome: Trust vs. Mistrust
Basic strength: Drive and Hope
This stage referred to as infancy is also called the Oral Sensory Stage where the major emphasis is on the mother's positive and loving care for the child, with a big emphasis on visual contact and touch. Once passed successfully, people learn to trust learn to trust that life is basically okay and have basic confidence in the future. If one fails to experience trust and is constantly frustrated because his/her needs are not met, they may end up with a deep-seated feeling of worthlessness and a mistrust of the world in general. This trust helps people later in career life in developing team spirit as they interact with colleagues and become part of the team in a work place.
2. Early Childhood: 18 Months to 3 Years
Ego Development Outcome: Autonomy vs. Shame
Basic Strengths: Self-control, Courage, and Will
During this stage we learn to master skills for ourselves. Apart from learning how to walk, talk and feed ourselves, we also learn finer motor development as well as the much appreciated toilet training. Here people have the opportunity to build self-esteem and autonomy as they gain more control over their bodies and acquire new skills, distinguishing right from wrong. This stage relates to career development in that it is at this stage that we develop a strong sense of autonomy, self-control, courage and will which are key determinants in career development.
3. Play Age: 3 to 5 Years
Ego Development Outcome: Initiative vs. Guilt
Basic Strength: Purpose
At this stage, children have a desire to imitate adults and take initiative in creating play situations. They make up stories and play a lot with toys, playing out roles in a trial universe, as they experiment what they believe it means to be an adult. It is also at this stage where the word/question ‘’why’’ is on the child’s vocabulary as they begin to explore the world. According to Erikson at this stage we usually become involved in the classic "Oedipal struggle" and resolve this struggle through "social role identification." If we're frustrated over natural desires and goals, we may easily experience guilt. This stage is crucial in career development because this is where our sense of taking initiatives well as guilt and having purpose are developed. These characteristics are important in career development.
4. School Age: 6 to 12 Years
Ego Development Outcome: Industry vs. Inferiority
Basic Strengths: Method and Competence
This stage is also called ‘’Latency stage’’, during which we are capable of learning, creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge, thus developing a sense of industry. This is also a very social stage of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers, we can have serious problems in terms of competence and self-esteem.
5. Adolescence: 12 to 18 Years
Ego Development Outcome: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Basic Strengths: Devotion and Fidelity
According to Erikson, development at this stage mostly depends upon what is done to us. From here on out, development...