Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure, or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2011, there were over 983 million international tourist arrivals worldwide, representing a growth of 4.6% when compared to US$ 940 billion in 2010. International tourism receipts (the travel item of thebalance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2011, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. In 2011, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. Tourism is important, and in some cases, vital for many countries. It was recognized in the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural, educational, and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations." Tourism brings in large amounts of income in payment for goods and servicesavailable, accounting for 30% of the world's exports of services, and 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It also creates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy, associated with tourism. These service industries includetransportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships, and taxicabs; hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels andresorts; and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues, and theatres. Contents [hide] * 1 Etymology * 2 World tourism statistics and rankings * 2.1 Total volume of cross-border tourist travel * 2.2 Most-visited countries by international tourist arrivals * 2.3 International tourism receipts * 2.4 International tourism expenditure * 3 History * 3.1 Emergence of Leisure travel * 3.2 Modern Day Tourism * 3.3 Winter tourism * 3.4 Mass tourism * 3.5 Adjectival tourism * 4 Recent developments * 4.1 Sustainable tourism * 4.2 Ecotourism * 4.3 Pro-poor tourism * 4.4 Recession tourism * 4.5 Medical tourism * 4.6 Educational tourism * 4.7 Creative tourism * 4.8 Dark tourism * 4.9 Doom tourism * 5 Growth * 5.1 Sports tourism * 5.2 Latest trends * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
Theobald (1994) suggested that "etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, 'tornare' and the Greek, 'tornos', meaning 'a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis'. This meaning changed in modern English to represent 'one's turn'. The suffix –ism is defined as 'an action or process; typical behaviour or quality', while the suffix, –istdenotes 'one that performs a given action'. When the word tour and the suffixes –ism and –ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a round-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the...
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