Human Resource Training and Development.

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Training and development is a major investment made by employers , and therefore great care should be taken to ensure adequate returns on the investment. Training and development.
Some experts try to differentiate training from development. In this case, both training and development is in the same meaning. Training is more to short term, and focuses on current needs of the employee and the organization. Development meanwhile looks more to the future needs, whereby development are about preparing employees for tomorrow’s jobs, technology and economic situation. Most on-the-job training efforts are about ensuring that employees can perform their present tasks as well as possible. Leadership programmes, on the other hand, are an example of the development initiatives taken by employers to ensure they have a steady supply of senior managers ready to drive organizational success.

Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and abilities or known as K.S.A. K.S.A. is necessary to successfully perform a job. Several reasons exist for an organization to conduct training for it’s employees. Here are the 4 reasons why K.S.A. is important.

1. Economic, social, technological, and government changes can make the skills learned today obsolete in the future. 2. Planned organizational changes (such as the introduction of new equipment) can make it necessary for employees to update their skills or acquire new ones. 3. Performance problems within an organization such as low productivity or large scrap problems can be reduced by training. 4. Regulatory, contractual, professional, or certification issues can require an employer to provide training for it employees.

* Perform job analysis
* Perform needs assessment
* Establish training objectives
* Conduct training program
* Evaluate training outcomes
Job analysis.
Job analysis is actually more focusing on the Knowledge, skills, and abilities (K.S.A.). K.S.A. is actually necessary to successfully perform a job. Perform needs assessment.
Needs assessment is a systematic analysis of the specific training activities the organization requires to achieve it objectives. In general, five methods can be used to gather needs assessment information – 1. Interviews

2. Surveys / questionnaires
3. Observations
4. Focus groups
5. Document examination
Interviews with employees can be conducted by specialists in the Human Resource Deaprtment or by outside experts. Basic questions that should usually be asked are as follows : 1. What problems is the employees having in his/her job.

2. What additional skills and/or knowledge does the employee need to better perform the job? 3. What training does the employee believe is needed?
In conducting an interviews, every organization would have several additional questions about specific issues. In addition, if interviews are to provide useful information, employees must believe their input will be valued and not be used against them. Surveys and/or questionnaires are also frequently used in needs assessment. Normally this involves developing a list of skills required to perform particular jobs effectively and asking employees to check those skills in which they believe they need training.

Several methods can be used to satisfy an organization’s training needs and accomplish it’s objectives. Some of the more commonly used methods include on-the-job training, job rotation, apprenticeship training, and classroom training. * On-The-Job training.

On-the-Job training or simply known as OTJ, is normally given by a senior employee or a manager. The employee is shown how to perform the job and allowed to do it under the trainer’s supervision. * Job rotation (cross training)

One of the OTJ training is job rotation, sometimes called...
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