“Homonyms and antonyms”
fulfilled by the second-year student
“Words identical in form but quite different in their meaning and distribution are called homonyms” [1, 74]. “Homonym is a word that is spelt like another word (or pronounced like it) but which has a different meaning” [2, 464]. The term is derided from Greek “homonymous” (homos – “the same” and onoma – “name”) and thus expresses very well the sameness of name combined with the difference in meaning The traditional formal classification of homonyms is as follows: 1. Homonyms proper which are identical both in sound and spelling, e.g. ball (м’яч) - ball (бал), hail (град) – hail (окликати). 2. Partial homonyms are subdivided into:
1) Homographs which are identical in spelling but different in sound, e.g. bow/bou/(лук)-bow/bau/(ніс корабля), lead /led/ (свинець) – lead/li:d/ (вести). 2) Homophones which are identical in sound but different in spelling, e.g. key (ключ) – quay (набережна), sow (сіяти) – sew (шити) [1, 74]. Homonyms may be classified by the type of their meaning. In this case one should distinguish between: 1. Lexical homonyms which belong to the same part of speech, e.g. plane n. (літак) – plain n. (рівнина), light a. (світлий) – light a. (легкий). 2. Grammatical homonyms which belong to different parts of speech, e.g. row v. (гребти) – row n.(ряд), weather n. (погода) – whether conj. (чи). 3. Homoforms which are identical only in some paradigm constituents, e.g. scent n. – sent (Past Ind. and Past Part. of send), seize v. – sees (Pr.Ind., 3d p.sing. of see) [1, 74]. Professor A.I. Smirnitsky classified homonyms into two large classes: 1)Full homonyms are words, which...