Category of Number of the Noun

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  • Topic: Grammatical number, English plural, Noun
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2. Category of Number of the Noun.
Regular – one.
Plural – more than one.
Regular Plurals:
1. Nouns ending in vowels & voiced consonants - -s(bee-bees, dog-dogs, [z]) 2. Voiceless consonants - -s(book-books, [s])
3. –s,-sh,-ss,-ch,-x,-z - -es (actress-actresses, [iz])
4. –o: -es-hero-heroes. But:
after a vowel – bamboos, embryos, folios, kangaroos, radios, studios, zoos. In proper names – Romeos, Eskimos, Filipinos.
In abbreviations - kilos, photos, pros(professional).
Also: pianos, concertos, dynamos, quartos, solos,tangos, tobaccos. In other cases the spelling is -oes (tomatoes, echoes, Negroes, potatoes, vetoes, torpedoes, embargoes) –oes/-os : cargo(e)s, banjo(e)s, halo(e)s

5. Consonant+y - -ies (sky-skies). But:
After vowels, except nouns ending –quy(day-days, soliloquy-soliloquies) In proper names: the two Germanys, the Kennedys, the Gatsbys In compounds: stand-bys, lay-bys.
Penny: pence-the British currency(денежная сумма), pennies-for individual coins. 6. –f(e)
–ves: wife-wives, life-lives, leaf-leaves, knife-knives, wolf-wolves, calf-calves, half-halves, loaf-loaves, self-selves, shelf-shelves. –s: other nouns(proof-proofs, chief-chefs, safe-safes, cliff-cliffs, gulf-gulfs, dwarf-dwarfs, reef-reefs, grief-griefs –ves/-s: scarf-scarfs/scarves, dwarf-dwarfs/dwarves, hoof-hoofs/hooves. 7. –th - -ths (mouth-mouths)

8. in abbreviations - -s(M.P.-M.P.s) But: Ms(manuscript)-MSS, p.(page)-pp., Mr- Irregular Plurals.
1. By vowel change (Man-men, woman-women, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice, louse-lice). 2. –en (ox-oxen, child-children)
3. Identical
(sheep-sheep, swine-swine(свинья), deer-deer, grouse-grouse(куропатка). But: 2 variants: fish-fish/fishes, pike-pile/pikes, trout-trout(s), carp-carp(s), salmon-salmon(s). The zero plural is more common to denote hunting quarries. (We caught a few fish, five salmon); the regular plural – different individuals, species. Nationality nouns in –ese, -ss: Chinese, Swiss. And: Englishmen = the English, Dutchmen = the Dutch. Latin & French nouns: series-series(ряд, серия), species-species(вид, порода, род), corps [ko:]-corps[ko:z] (корпус, род войск). Pair, couple, dozen, score(20), stone(6,35 kg), head (поголовье): 2 dozen of children, dozens of children. 4.

Loans of Greek origin -(-is - -es: basis-bases, crisis-crises, analysis, thesis, parenthesis, axis[вал, ось, шпендель], hypothesis, diagnosis; -on – a: criterion – criteria, phenomenon, -a – ata: miasma-miasmata) Loans of Latin origin (-us - -i, -ora, -era: stimulus-stimuli, nucleus-nuclei[ядро],radius-radii[тело], genus-genera[род]; -a - -ae: formula-formulae(formulas), antenna, vertebra[позвонок]; -um - -a: datum-data[данная величина], stratum-strata[описка], erratum-errata[опечаток]; -es,-ix - -ices, -es: index-indices(indexes), appendix, matrix) Other loan nouns (-ean - -eaux: tableau-tableaux, bureau; -o - -i: tempo-tempi) 2 variants (memorandum –memoranda, memorandums, curriculum-curricula, curriculums[курс обучения], formula-formulae, formulas, cherub-cherubim[херувим], cherubs, focus-foci, focuses) Different meaning index-indexes-list of contents of books, indices-показатель; genius-geniuses-men of talent, genii-духи, домовые)

Plural in compound nouns
1. The 2nd component takes the plural form as a rule (housewives, tooth-brushes) 2. –ful – at the end of the word(handfuls, spoonfuls)
3. man & woman –the 1st components(men-servants, women-docters) 4. ending –man – men(policeman-policemn) But:Germans, Romans(not compounds) 5. prepositional noun phrase where the preposition is a linking element only – the 1st noun takes the plural form(editors-in-chief-главный редактор, mothers-in-law, commanders-in-chiefs-главнокомандующий, coats-of-mail-кольчуга, men-of-war-военный корабль) 6. compounds = conjunction as a linking element – the plural is taken by the 2nd noun (gin-and-tonics) 7. compound=noun+preposition/adverb/adjective-the 1st element-plural(passers-by,...
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