Health Promotion and Models

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1. Introduction

It is widely recognised that disease prevention and the associated mortality is vastly dependent on the behavioural and psychological factors (Berkman & Kawachi, 2000) Health promotion stems from these factors whereby focussing on the individual’s behaviour by influencing changes in variety of aspects such as families, communities work places and eventually encouraging individuals to adopt healthy practices (Green, 1984). The role of a nurse in health promotion and education is considered as a key by numerous researchers and policy initiatives from the government to promote health comprehending the essentiality of health promotion (Norton, 1998). The present essay elucidates the effectiveness of health promotion within the context of health belief model (HBM) and behaviour change model (BCM) and critically analyzes it with the Whiteheads model (2001), where the nurse plays a role as a traditional health educator.

2. Case Study
As a student nurse, I have been actively involved in promoting it to my patient Duggie Snowdon, aged 21, the patient on appearance was substantially obese, and on examination it was found out that he had a BMI of 26. (See appendix 1.1 for full case study).

3. Health Belief Model (HBM)
The health professionals should focus on catering the needs of the patient beyond their practical tasks therefore, efforts to better understand the patients and their conditions are crucial, in order to provide effective care (Grainger, 2008).Furthermore, Harsmen et al. (2005) points that mutual understanding between a practitioner and patients is key in rendering quality care. Kleinman’s theory states that, it is important to account the patient and practitioner views on a decisive clinical agreement on patient’s health. As a practitioner the visual and engaging problem that I observed in my patient was obesity which may lead to detrimental effects in the future. In enumerating health education and health promotion to my patient the apt model to choose and comprehend personal belief or perceptions about his condition is HBM. The HBM identifies the factors involved in the individual’s health behavior and the likelihood of performing those behaviors (Gammage et al., 2009). Taking into account the H.B.M. (During the first appointment with the patient) I started to understand my patients eating behaviors by using the four perceptions of the model. The primary task within the HBM is assessing the patient understanding of his health condition (perceived susceptibility) and their understanding of the severity of their conditions (perceived severity). The patient’s initial perceived susceptibility and its severity towards his eating behavior was effectively high. Haisch et al. (2005) states that an individual perceived severity and susceptibility determines the strength of their belief that their own health is in jeopardy. Moreover the patient’s personal perception towards his obese condition has changed when his uncle expired owing to coronary disease associated with obesity and his friend’s rancid comments on his obesity. The patient’s realization of his obesity has provided with effective cues of action to alter his eating behavior. Stretcher & Rosenstock, 1997 comments that cues of action influence perceived risks eventually motivating individuals to alter their health behavior. Haisch et al.,, 2005 states if an individual perceived risks are greater, and then the individual is more likely to engage in behaviors which would decrease the risk.. He further reports that an individual tend to develop an unhealthy behavior, when they believe they are at low risk of associated problems. Wright, 1986 states that change in appearance and function of any part of body can lead to stigma in obese individuals and may lead to psychological consequences (Friedman & Brownell, 1995). However, the patient considered him-self big and strong rather than obese. Wardle & Johnson, 2002 points that obese individuals...
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