Hatshepsut Notes

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Family background:
Thutmose I and his great wife Ahmose were the parents of Hatshepsut. T2 was the son of a lesser wife and T1. His right to throne was signified by marriage to Hat. They produced a daughter, Neferure, but no son. T2 had a son, T3, with Isis, a lesser wife. T2 was sick and weakly, indecisive, not competent enough to rule on his own. Hat got training on how to run the country, as she took on many of her husband’s responsibilities. She had grounding on becoming a ruler. Hence, when T2 died, she was more than capable to rule. When T2 died, after ruling for a little while, T3 became pharaoh at only 10 yrs old. As it was customary, the former queen became regent until he was old enough to rule. Hatshepsut had many titles during T2’s reign. Her titles include: King’s daughter, king’s sister, Great Royal Wife, God’s Wife of Amun. Hence we know that she is royalty. Cliff-top tomb constructed according to her inferior status as queen

Her moving from title to title:
➢ As royal princess: shown with mum Ahmose, dad T1. find few statues of her as royal princess ➢ GRW: wears vulture cap, wears high feather crown. Producer of future heir, mother of future king. Feminine depiction Archaeological evid: Karnak temple (1st 7 yrs as regent, stressed she was GRW and GWA. The noblemen and 2nd stewards Ramose and Hatmofer, in their tomb’s seals, they saw Hat was GRW, GWA). Only the queen could appoint 2nd stewards ➢ Then abandoned this. At the beginning, still wears vulture cap, has a fem face; gradually wears a short kilt, puts her hands on her thighs (male portrayal), then attached false beard to chin. As regent, she stood behind T3 ➢ As sole ruler, T3 no longer seen in any portrayal. Breasts have gone, face and body are masc. Wears king’s attire-short kilt with triangular flap and crown. Began holding crook and flail. Standing-puts 1 leg forward (king’s pose) Hat depicted herself as a sphinx

➢ As the daughter of T1, Hat was automatically the royal princess ➢ She became the GRW when she married T2.
➢ When T2 died, Hat became queen regnant with T3. as QR, Hat was to act as regent until T3 was old enough to rule on his own ➢ Then Hat suddenly became the dominant personality of the co-regency. ➢ Through the use of propaganda, Hat was eventually able to become sole ruler

Right to rule:
This can be seen in Hat’s mortuary temple at Deir-el-Bahri (D-e-B). The walls of this temple provided Hatshepsut with an opportunity to justify her claim to the throne and advertise her major achievements. The colonnades are decorated with reliefs showing her expedition to Punt, her divine birth, court presentation and divine coronation. These are also represented in Karnak temple. There are two pairs of obelisks which tell of her right to rule. The 1st pair was completed in the 16th year of her reign. Hat was able to claim that she had rule for 30 yrs because she took some yrs of her husband’s reign as her own. The gradual process of Hatshepsut to portray herself as a male ruler can be seen through the numerous statues of her. The 7th year she gave up the title of the king’s wife.

Statue shows us she wore pharaonic regalia to portray herself as a typical NK warrior pharaoh. According to Tefnin and Redford, this was a gradual process.

Court presentation:
T1 presents Hat to all the officials at court.
Hat claimed her father took her as a child to all the temples and the officials to proclaim her as future ruler. “Great is her crown…the living were set before her…thou may see her administration…glorious in your magic, mighty in your strength, she shall be powerful in the 2 lands you shall seize…your forehead shall be adorned by the double diadem…heiress of Horus daughter of the white crown” (inscribed in 8th pylon, Karnak and D-e-B) “These people prostrated themselves in the court before her majesty…” “This is my daughter Khne met Amun-Hat who live, I have appointed...
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