Harvard Writing Style

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Library Guide on Harvard Citing and Referencing

Contents

Introduction2
Choosing a reference style2
What is referencing?2
Why reference?2
When to reference? (Plagiarism)3
In-text references4
Reference List5
Abbreviations5
Examples6
Authors6
Books8
Book8
Book chapter8
e-book from a database8
e-book from the Internet9
Encyclopaedia or dictionary9
Secondary citation9
No date10
Journal articles10
Journal article10
e-journal article from a database10
In press article11
Magazine article – no author11
Newspaper articles11
Newspaper article11
Newspaper article from a database11
Internet sources12
Discussion list message12
Newsgroup message12
Blogs12
Website documents13
Course notes13
Course notes from RMIT University Library reserve13
Course notes from RMIT University Library e-reserve13
Course notes from Online @ RMIT14
Reports14
Government publications14
Parliamentary debates14
Australian Bureau of Statistics15
Legislation and Legal cases15
Legislation15
Legal cases15
Other sources16
Conference paper16
Thesis16
Patent16
CD-ROM16
Film, video, TV and radio program17
Personal communication17
Bibliography17

Introduction
The author-date system originated at Harvard University, and although they no longer produce a standard guide to referencing, a version of the author-date system is still commonly referred to as the Harvard style. Other author-date referencing styles include: Chicago, APA and MLA. The Harvard Style of referencing is widely accepted in scholarly circles. Each reference is indicated in the text by the author and date of the publication cited, sometimes with added information such as page numbers. The full details of these references are listed at the end of the text in a Reference list. There are many different styles or ways of using the Harvard or author-date system. This document is meant only as a guide. It is important that you check with your School as to what they require for referencing. You may be penalised for not conforming to your School’s requirements. Further details and examples may be found in the Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002). Electronic resources are not adequately addressed in the Style manual for authors, editors and printers (2002) and so the principles of author-date citing have been applied in developing those examples. The information and examples are derived from the following source:

Style manual for authors, editors and printers 2002, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Australia.

Choosing a reference style
The style (i.e. order in which the details of a reference are cited) may vary depending on the requirements of your department, lecturer or supervisor. Some Schools produce their own guidelines for citing references. Check with your School whether they have a preferred Referencing Style. The Library also has a Style Manuals page (http://www.rmit.edu.au/library/reference/manuals) that provides links to websites on various referencing styles. What is referencing?

Referencing an information source used in an academic work means to employ a standardised method of acknowledging that source. The full details of the source must be given. All information used in your assignment, thesis, etc., whether published, or unpublished, must be referenced. Why reference?

When writing a piece of academic work (ie. essay, thesis, etc.) you are required to acknowledge the sources of information that you have used: Øto prove that your work has a substantial, factual basis Øto show the research you've done to reach your conclusions Øto allow your readers to identify and retrieve the references for their own use

Information obtained from the Internet is covered by copyright law. For this reason it is important to cite Internet references just as you would cite print references. Many style guide producers have extended the system used for...
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