Harvard Referencing Guide

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Harvard System Referencing Guide


This guide sets out the Harvard system of referencing to be used in the Thesis and other major essays submitted as part of the course taught through out the MBA program. It is important to reference published material that you wish to use in your essay. While referencing is a standard that is used to avoid plagiarism it also supports a strong scientific method.

To build arguments and provide evidence you must reference any published resources you use. The spirit of referencing is embodied in Newton's famous 1676 quote, 'If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants'. It means that Newton's great discoveries were made by building on the previous work of scientists. This reference guide sets out how to reference other authors' work properly.

For each type of material you are referencing (e.g. books, journal articles, newspapers, internet sites), this guide presents two parts, how to write the reference in the text of your essay and how to write the full reference at the end of the essay. The section at the end of the essay should be called a reference section and only include those references cited in the essay. For the purposes of this guide these two sections will be called in-text referencing and the reference list format.

A note on paraphrasing and quoting: Quotes are direct transcriptions of text from other sources while paraphrasing uses your own words to express others' ideas. You should attempt to paraphrase where possible and only use quotes sparingly and strategically. Both paraphrasing and quoting require referencing, and quotes must refer to the page number from which they were taken (see Books).


The Harvard system has a generic format for in-text referencing and the reference list. While this guide provides a range of examples for books, articles, Internet sources etc, the generic format below should be used where adaptation is necessary.


(Author, year) or Author (year) e.g. Sillince (1996) or (Sillince, 1999)

Reference List


Author, (Year) Title. Place Published: Publisher.
e.g. Sillince, J.A.A. (1996) Business Expert Systems. Hitchin: Technical Publications.


Author, (Year) 'Article title'. Journal Title, volume (number): pages. e.g. Sillince, J.A.A. (1999) 'The role of political language forms and language coherence in the organizational change process'. Organization Studies, 20 (3): 485-518.


The following exemplifies several in-text references for books with one, two, more than two authors, and authors cited by another author. When citing more than two authors, list all authors' surnames the first time, then use et al. (see example). Note the different formats for the in-text referencing of paraphrasing and quotes (with page number) and the complete references in the reference list.


One Author

The development of bureaucratization in the UK was fundamentally different from that of the US. The Taylorist efficiency movement occurred in the US during an expansionary period while the same movement occurred in the UK during one of the worst ever recessions (Littler, 1982). Littler (1982) concludes that for these reasons the labor movements in the UK are fundamentally different from those in the US. These differences in capitalist development had important consequences, 'This affected the pattern of resistance, and British capitalism still carries the scars of this historical conjuncture' (Littler, 1982: 195).

Two Authors

Managerial skills are a key focus for Whetton and Cameron's (1991) introductory text.

Three or More Authors

Smith, Child and Rowlinson's (1990) case study of Cadbury's Ltd revealed that the corporate culture's resistance to change was diminished by the use of new concepts and symbols. The new vision embodied in the transformation was also facilitated by key change agents located strategically...
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