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September 2011

Factsheet 4

Creating a Bibliography and Citing References
This factsheet can be made available in alternative formats. Please make your request at the Library Help desk, telephone 01642 342100 or email libraryhelp@tees.ac.uk It is important whenever you carry out a piece of research for an essay, project or an assignment to include details of any sources of information you have used. Whenever you quote from or paraphrase work written by another author, you must acknowledge that you have done so. This factsheet will help you to reference and cite your work correctly. The process is made up of two parts: 1. Citation: the acknowledgement in your text, giving brief details of the work (e.g. Jones, 2008, p.10). The reader should be able to identify or locate the work from these details in your reference list or bibliography. 2. Reference list: the list of references at the end of your work. These should include the full information for your citations so that readers can then easily identify and locate each piece of work that you have used. It is important that these references are consistent, correct and complete. Why do we need to cite references? To acknowledge debts to other writers. To demonstrate the body of knowledge upon which your research is based. To show how widely you have researched your topic and on what authority you have based your arguments or conclusions. To enable all those who read your work to locate your sources easily. To avoid being accused of plagiarism i.e. passing off someone else‟s work as your own.

When should you cite sources? Cite sources when you quote directly from another text. Cite sources from which you paraphrase or summarize facts or ideas. Cite sources for ideas or information that could be regarded as common knowledge but which you think your reader might still find unfamiliar. (Common knowledge is facts that are generally considered as known) Cite sources that add relevant information to the particular topic or argument of your work. Cite sources for materials that you might not normally consider as „texts‟ because they are not written. If in doubt about whether or not to cite a source, cite it. How to cite references? When making references to other people‟s work in your writing, there are many different styles you can use. There are, however, basically two alternative ways of citing your references. It is important to find out from your School if there is a preference for a particular style of referencing.

1. Author, Date system (e.g. Harvard) This method is often preferred in subject areas where it is particularly important to demonstrate the currency of your information. When you mention or refer to the work of another author in the main body of your essay or report then the author must be acknowledged by inserting the surname of the author into the text, together with the date of publication of the book or article to which you have referred. Disruptive technologies can be difficult for a company to invest in, (Norman, 1999, pp. 21-24) if the level of investment in existing technologies is high. OR Norman (1999, pp. 21-24) states that it can be difficult for a company to invest in disruptive technologies. Your list of references or bibliography at the end of your piece of work would be presented in alphabetical author order. 2. Numeric Each time you refer to a new piece of work, you should give the reference a number, either in superscript, or in brackets. The numbered list of references at the end of your piece of work would be presented in the order in which they are used in the text. Disruptive technologies can be difficult for a company to invest in, if the level of investment in existing technologies is high.’ (12) OR Norman (12) states that it can be difficult for a company to invest in disruptive technologies.’ Footnotes are the numbered list of references supplied at the foot of each page of work. Endnotes are the numbered list of references...
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