Before explaining Gregor’s theory X and Y,let me introduce you to motivation.
internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. In other words motivation is the process by which a person’s effort are energized,directed and sustained toward attaining a goal. In an organization, managers need to be ale able to motivate employees towards the organizational goals.
Early theories of motivation include MCGREGOR’S THEORY X AND Y. It represents the foundation of which contemporary theories were developed.
Douglas McGregor (1906 - 1964) is one of the forefathers of management theory and one of the top business thinkers of all time. In the year 1960, he developed a philosophical view of humankind with his Theory X and Theory Y. This theory can be used in human resource management, organizational behavior, organizational communication and organizational development. His work is basically based upon Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, where lower-order needs is Theory X and higher order needs as Theory Y.
These two opposing perceptions theorized how people view human behavior at work and organizational life: Theory X
Management that believes in theory-X assumptions rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain their employees' compliance to meet the organizational goals.
* employees are inherently lazy
* will avoid work if they can
* they inherently dislike work.
* employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program * will avoid responsibility whenever they can
* employee's interest in the job is money.
Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision, and a punitive atmosphere Management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. A...