Globalization Culture and Architectural Education in Nigeria.

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GLOBALIZATION CULTURE AND ARCHITECTURAL EDUCATION IN NIGERIA.

By

Dr Adedeji Daramola, Wole Alagbe, Bridgette Aduwo.
e-mail: sadaramola2000@yahoo.com

School of Architecture,
Covenant University, Ota - Nigeria.

Abstract:
Globalization has exerted so much pressure on every aspect of the global economy. This pressure is fast affecting the economy of most underdeveloped and developing world. The precipitation of the World Trade Organization principles, which compelled participating nations to open up their boarders to foreign goods and services, has finally compelled indigenous culture and economy to untold competition and imminent collapse. This paper considers the inherent and apparent effects of globalization culture on architectural education as well as curriculum development in Nigerian Schools of Architecture. It opined that there is a need to marry both the unique tropical Nigerian environment with its cultural background, while embracing the loftiness of foreign design concept and flavour that are initiated through globalization. It asserted that while globalization principles can be embraced, great caution should be exercised. Finally, both environmental harmony as well as sustainability factors must be given due considerations in harnessing any global design concept. This will avert the intractable architectural misdemeanours prevailing in Nigeria communities. Through appropriate architectural education, so much can be achieved in re-orientating the Nigerian architects.

INTRODUCTION
In April, 1988, the Commonwealth Association of Architects (CAA) in collaboration with the Nigerian Institute of Architects organised an international symposium with the theme ‘Towards A New Direction in Architectural Education in Africa at the Sheraton Hotels. Many architects and Scholars from Africa and Britain gathered to share their experiences. At the symposium, the following suggestion were reflected in the communiqué 1. The political emphasis of Africa and its sub regions should aim at improving the general standard of the rural dwellers. 2. Re-focus on the plight of economy of African states. Broaden the roles of the architects, thereby becoming proficient not only as designers but largely gaining understanding of the allied professionals in the building industry (Odeleye, 1991). Armed with this communiqué, and going by the fundamental quality it holds, on the 8-9 March, 1991, the Commonwealth Association of Architects, in collaboration with the Congress of Heads of Schools of Architecture in the African Region, organised another conference to drive home the resolution reached at the 1988 symposium. At the conference Arc Mbanefo, the president of Nigerian Institute of Architects, urged the conference to critically concentrate on three major points of the 1988 communiqué. The meeting also reviewed among others that there is definitely need for change in the training of Architects in Africa to produce the right calibre manpower for Africa’s architectural needs. Consequently, the conference agreed to revisit the drawing boards and redesign appropriate direction of architectural education for Africa. The design was to consider the socio-economic, cultural environment of the region in the design. This is aimed at making them more versatile, more relevant and responsive to the changing needs of the changing environment. This would in turn enable them to play and keep his role as the head of the building team (Odeleye, 1991). GLOBALISATION AND NIGERIAN ECONOMY

The state of African economy where the GDP is fast dwindling at a disturbing rate with the average per capital income for the 53 African states cumulating at about $800 per head in 1980 and at crashing down to about $350 per head in 2003 is most pathetic. In Nigeria specifically, in 1980, the per capital income was $2,400, while in 2003, it is about $350. This however does not reflect the experience in European and American countries. In Germany for...
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