Colonnade by Perrault

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Bath University

Dept. Of Architecture & Civil Engineering Mark Wilson Jones

History and Theory 3 - 2004/05, Semester 1

“Classicism and the foundations of Modern Design Theory” Part B, Seminar series: Modern theory: functionalism, rationalism, nature and evolution.

Authors: Third Year of 2004/05
Edited by Howard Tee and Andrew Perkins
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Contents

Contents:
Claude Perrault ....................................5 Primitivism............................................8 Sir John Soane..................................... 10 Durand................................................ 13 Heinrich Hübsch ................................. 15 Schinkel .............................................. 18 Gottfried Semper................................ 20 Viollet-le-Duc: .................................... 24 Augustus Welby Pugin ....................... 26 John Ruskin ......................................... 29 William Morris.................................... 32 Louis H. Sullivan ................................. 35 Adolf Loos........................................... 38 Frank Lloyd Wright............................. 44 Bauhaus .............................................. 47 Robert Venturi .................................... 50 David Watkin ...................................... 54 Notes .................................................. 60 Bibliography....................................... 61

This document comprises of the hand-outs of the presentations given by the student seminar teams of 2004/5 Third Year Architects at the University of Bath. It is bound together here for future reference of the students concerned.

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Claude Perrault

Claude Perrault
1613-1688
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was one of the first to realise the implications of Galileo's revolution in scientific method. In he denied the his Novum Organum authority of the ancients and proposed a new type of knowledge based on observation and recording of data. Knowledge was, he said, in constant development. Bacon saw in the future a Utopia of absolute rationality. The new worldview was no longer one of the cyclical, but one of progression. In a nutshell, the old reality saw phenomena as unexplainable, qualitative works of God. The new reality was a reality of quantity, of measurement. That lose its which was visible began to importance to abstractions, relations and equations. The idea of a rational progressive knowledge became explicit in France with the setting up of the Academies of Science and of Architecture. Both Charles and Claude were closely involved with this process. Claude was a founding member of the Academy of Science in 1666, and Charles was an extremely vocal proponent of the cause of the Moderns over the Ancients, arguing his case in the book Le Querelle de les Anciens et les Perrault brothers Modernes. The completely separated faith from reason. They saw God as being outside the realms of the rational and limited all inquiry to asking 'how?' and not 'why?' It was Claude's 'faith' in the new scientific method that informed to a great extent his rigorous study of the architecture of the Ancients, and his dissection of the work of Vitruvius.

Perrault at the opening of the Academie des Science

A Scientific Revolution
Claude Perrault was by training a physician and an anatomist; however it is far more instructive to label him a philosopher, a seeker of knowledge. Before analysing in detail his architectural theories, it is important to understand the context within which he lived and worked. The Perrault brothers (Claude and Charles) happened to be born into the midst of a revolution in the way that we think about the world. This paradigm shift was driven from within the realms of science but had large repercussions in all areas of knowledge. During medieval times and the renaissance knowledge (scientific, artistic, architectural) was generally seen as a static and unchanging thing, given to man by god....
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