# Fuzzy Set

Topics: Fuzzy logic, Expert system, Artificial intelligence Pages: 22 (5853 words) Published: April 10, 2013
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Rule-based Expert Systems

Ajith Abraham
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA

1 Problem Solving Using Heuristics 2 What are Rule-based Systems? 3 Inference Engine in Rule-based Systems 4 Expert System Development 5 Fuzzy Expert Systems 6 Modeling Fuzzy Expert Systems 7 Illustration of Fuzzy Expert System Design 8 Adaptation of Fuzzy Inference Systems 9 Summary References

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1 PROBLEM SOLVING USING HEURISTICS
A general introduction to artiﬁcial intelligence methods of measurement signal processing is given in Article 128, Nature and Scope of AI Techniques, Volume 2. Problem solving is the process of ﬁnding a solution when the path leading to that solution is uncertain. Even though we are familiar with several problem-solving techniques, in the real world, sometimes many problems cannot be solved by a technique we are familiar with. Surprisingly, for some complicated problems, no straightforward solution technique is known at all. For these problems, heuristic solution techniques may be the only alternative. A heuristic can be simpliﬁed as a strategy that is powerful and general, but not absolutely guaranteed to provide best solutions. Heuristic methods are very problem speciﬁc. Previous experience and some general rules – often called rules of

thumb – could help ﬁnd good heuristics easier. Humans use heuristics a great deal in their problem solving. Of course, if the heuristic does fail, it is necessary for the problem solver to either pick another heuristic, or know that it is appropriate to give up. Choosing random solutions, adopting greedy approaches, evolving the basic heuristics for ﬁnding better heuristics are just some of the popular approaches used in heuristic problem solving (Michalewicz and Fogel, 1999). Heuristic problem solving involves ﬁnding a set of rules, or a procedure, that ﬁnds satisfactory solutions to a speciﬁc problem. A good example is ﬁnding one’s way through a maze. To make the way toward the ﬁnal goal, a stepby-step movement is necessary. Very often false moves are made but in most cases we solve the problem without much difﬁculty. For the maze problem, a simple heuristic rule could be ‘choose the direction that seems to make progress’. Another good example is the job shop scheduling problem wherein the task is to schedule Jn independent jobs, where n = {1, 2, . . . .N } on Rm heterogeneous resources and m = {1, 2, . . . ., M}, with an objective of minimizing the completion time of all the jobs and utilizing all the resources effectively. Each job Jn has processing requirement Pj cycles and resource Rm has speed of Si cycles/unit time. Any job Jn has to be processed in resource Rm , until completion. If Cj is the completion time and the last job j ﬁnishes processing, then we deﬁne Cmax = max{Cj , j = 1, . . . , N }, the makespan and Cj , as the ﬂow-time. The task is to ﬁnd an optimal schedule that optimizes the ﬂow-time and make-span. Some simple heuristic rules to achieve this are by scheduling the Shortest Job on the Fastest Resource (SJFR), which would minimize Cj or by

Handbook of Measuring System Design, edited by Peter H. Sydenham and Richard Thorn.  2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ISBN: 0-470-02143-8.

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Elements: B – Signal Conditioning the knowledge base, a different problem can be solved using the same program without reprogramming efforts. Moreover, expert systems could explain the reasoning process and handle levels of conﬁdence and uncertainty, which conventional algorithms do not handle (Giarratano and Riley, 1989). Some of the important advantages of expert systems are as follows: • ability to capture and preserve irreplaceable human experience; • ability to develop a system more consistent than human experts; • minimize human expertise needed at a number of locations at the same time (especially in a hostile environment that is dangerous to human health); • solutions can be developed faster than human...