Chapter 7 Cognition – thinking, intelligence, and language
Thinking (cognition) - is mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information and communicating information to others.
Mental images- are mental representation that stand for objects or events and have a picture like quality.
Concepts- are ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities.
Superordinate concepts- the most general form of a type of concepts, such as “animal” or “fruit”; superordinate refers to highest in statue or standing.
Basic level type- an example of a type of concepts around which similar concepts are organized, such as “dog,” “cat” or “pear.”
Subordinate concept- is the most specific category of a concept, such as one’s pet dog or a pair in one’s hand, subordinate refers to lowest in statue or standing.
Formal concepts- are concepts that are defined by specific rules or features.
Natural concepts- are concepts people form as a result of their experience in the real world.
Prototype- is an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept.
Problem solving- is the process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behavior in certain ways.
Trial and error (mechanical solution) - is the problem- solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is fined.
Algorithms- are a very specific, step-by-step procedure for solving certain types of problems.
Heuristic- is an educated guess based on prior experiences that help narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also knows as a “rule of thumb”.
Representative heuristic- is an assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category are also a member of that category.
Availability heuristic- is an estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is for us to think of related examples.
Means-end analysis- is heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference.
Functional fixedness- is a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions.
Mental set- is the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.
Confirmation bias- is the tendency to search for evidence that fits ones beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs.
Creativity- is the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways.
Convergent thinking- is the type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic.
Diverging thinking- is the type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point.
Intelligence- is the ability to learn from one’s experience, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems.
Triarchic theory of intelligence- is Sternberg’s theory that there are three kinds of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical.
Analytical intelligence- is the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for the problem solving.
Creative intelligence- is the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems.
Practical intelligence- is the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful.
G factor- is the ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence.
S factor- is the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence.
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