The forces, relations and modes of production are the core concepts of Marx’s social theory. They are fundamental to the constitution of a society. The mode of production is the main determinant of social phenomena and is made up of the forces of production and the relations of production. The forces of production refer to the material worked upon, the tools, techniques, knowledge and skills employed in the production of economic goods. The relations of production arise from the process of production and refer to the relationships between the owners and non-owners of the means. Forces of Production
* Forces of production express the extent to which man can control nature. * They include scientific and technical knowledge, technological equipment and labour organisation. That is, the means of production and labour power. * The development of forces of production reflects the constant struggle of humans trying to master nature.
According to Marx, Labour Power is the capacity to do work which increases the value of the product. Workers sell their labour power to the capitalists in exchange for wages paid in cash. Labour is the actual work performed by one which increases the value of the product. Labour Power is a category used by Marx to explain the source of surplus value. The source of value in capitalistic system is located in the process whereby the value paid by capitalists for labour power is less than the value which labour power adds to a commodity.
Relations of Production
* Relations of production are the social relations of production. It is not merely the ownership of the means of production. They include both the relations between the direct producers (workers) and employers, and the relationships between the direct producers themselves. In the capitalistic system, the former is one of domination and the latter is one of cooperation. * The relations of production are the...