Types of Food Adulteration
In India, the most common type of food adulterations is of following types:
1. Milk :- It is adulterated by the addition of water, starch, skim milk powder and removal of cream.
2. Ghee :- It is adulterated with vanaspati and animal fats such as pig's fat. In order to improve the flavor of adulterated ghee tributyrin is added.
3. Cereals :- Rice and wheat are mixed with stones sand grit and mud to increase the bulk.
4. Flour :- Wheat flour is mixed with soapstone and Bengal gram flour is adulterated with Kesari dal or lathyrus flour.
5. Pulses :- They are adulterated with Kesari Dal stones are added to pulses such as mott urad, and masoor. Toxic chemical such as metanil yellow are added to old stocks of pulses to improve their colour appearance.
6. Edible Oil :- They are mixed with cheaper oil, toxic oil (e.g. argemone oil) and mineral oil.
7. Honey :- It is adulterated with sugar and jaggery.
1. Glass Wares :
• Test Tube, Beaker, Slides
2. Food Samples.
• Ghee, Milk, Oil, Pulses samples.
3. Chemical Required
• Conc. HCl., Conc. Nitric Acid.
4. Test Tube stand.
Procedure for detection the Adulteration in the food Items
Adulteration in the food material can be detected in the following ways.
1. Vanaspti in Ghee :- Took one tea spoon full of liquid ghee. Added equal quantity of conc. HCl shook this mixture in a test tube. Now added a pinch of common sugar. Shook it well for about one minute and then allowed it to stand for 5 minute and observed the result.
2. Water in milk sample:- Put a drop of sample milk on a plain slide. Tittled the slide and observed the result.
3. Agremone oil in edible oil :- Took some amount of edible oil in a test tube. Poured 3-4 drops of conc nitric acid. Shook it well and observed the result.
4. Metanil yellow in Dal :- Took 5 gms of sample. Add 5ml of water and a few drops of dil. HCl and observed the result.
Table-A:- Detection of vanaspati in ghee
Sr.No. Sample Procedure Observation
1. Ghee A Sample+Conc. + + +
HCl + Sugar Crimson colour in
lower layer of the
2. Ghee B -do- + +
3. Ghee C -do- -
Table-B:- Detection of water in Milk