ABSTRACT Over 300 million tones of industrial wastes are being produced per annum by chemical and agricultural process in India. These materials pose problems of disposal and health hazards. The wastes like phosphogypsum, fluorogypsum and red mud contain obnoxious impurities which adversely affect the strength and other properties of building materials based on them. Out of several wastes being produced at present, the use of phosphogypsum, flurogypsum, lime sludge, hypo sludge, red mud, and mine tailing is of paramount significance to protect the environment. Paper making generally produces a large amount of solid waste. Paper fibers can be recycled only a limited number of times before they become too short or weak to make high quality paper. It means that the broken, low- quality paper fibers are separated out to become waste sludge. All the inks, dyes, coatings, pigments, staples and “stickies” (tape, plastic films, etc.) are also washed off the recycled fibers to join the waste solids. The shiny finish on glossy magazine-type paper is produced using a fine kaolin clay coating, which also becomes solid waste during recycling. This paper mill sludge consumes a large percentage of local landfill space for each and every year. Worse yet, some of the wastes are land spread on cropland as a disposal technique, raising concerns about trace contaminants building up in soil or running off into area lakes and streams. Some companies burn their sludge in incinerators, contributing to our serious air pollution problems. To reduce disposal and pollution problems emanating from these industrial wastes, it is most essential to develop profitable building materials from them. Keeping this in view, investigations were undertaken to produce low cast concrete by blending various ratios of cement with hypo sludge. This project is concerned with experimental investigation on strength of concrete and optimum percentage of the partial replacement by replacing cement via 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of Hypo Sludge.
Keywords: Hypo Sludge, Pozzolanic Property, supplementary cementitious materials. INTRODUCTION General Energy plays a crucial role in growth of developing countries like India. In the context of low availability of non-renewable energy resources coupled with the requirements of large quantities of energy for Building materials like cement, the importance of using industrial waste cannot be under estimated. During manufacturing of 1 tones of Ordinary Portland Cement we need about 1-1? tonnes of earth resources like limestone, etc. Further during manufacturing of 1 tonnes of Ordinary Portland Cement an equal amount of carbon-di-oxide are released into the atmosphere. The carbon-di-oxide emissions act as a silent Killer in the environment as various forms. In this Backdrop, the search for cheaper substitute to OPC is a needful one. SOLID WASTE FROM PAPER INDUSTRY Hypo Sludge Properties Where, this hypo sludge contains, low calcium and maximum calcium chloride and minimum amount of silica. Hypo sludge behaves like cement because of silica and magnesium properties. This silica and magnesium improve the setting of the concrete. Fig 1- Raw Hypo sludge disposal from TNPL
While producing paper the various wastes are comes out from the various processes in paper industries. From the preliminary waste named as hypo sludge due to its low calcium is taken out for our project to replace the cement utilization in concrete. Due to the cement production green house gases are emitted in the atmosphere. For producing 4million tones of cement, they emit 1 million ton green house gases are emitted. Also, to reduce the environmental degradation, this sludge has been avoided in mass level disposal in land. To eliminate the ozone layer depletion,...