Explain how Organizations are affected by their environment (Emphasize on : Environmental changes and complexity, Competitive forces and Environmental turbulence). Deliberate upon the effectiveness of PAF in her Environment.
(Word limit 1000-1200) (30)
What is Charisma? Discuss any two leaders whose Charisma has brought success or failure to their nations/followers. Critically analyze the contributing reasons/factors.
(Word limit 1000-1200) (30)
* Leadership & Resource Management (Correspondence Component) * Management by, Peter F, Drucker
* Principles of Management Koontz, Harald
* Principles of Management - by Stephen P. Robbins.
What are different types of Managers on the basis of their functional area and level in the organization? Give examples from PAF to elaborate your answer.
Ans. to Q.1
TYPES OF MANAGERS
Management comprises directing and controlling a group of one or more people or entities for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing them towards accomplishing a goal. Managers are people who work with and through other people by providing guidance to accomplish work activities related to the realization of organizational goals. They are often classified into three groups in a hierarchy of authority, and each has different, but related, responsibilities. These three types of managers are grouped into departments (or functions). A department is a group of people who work together and possess similar skills or use the same skill sets to perform their jobs. These include top managers, middle managers and first-line managers. In the succeeding paragraphs levels of managers are discussed:-
Top managers are responsible for the performance of all departments and therefore have a cross-departmental responsibility. Because top management is ultimately responsible for the success or failure of the organization, persons inside and outside of the organization closely scrutinize their performance. These individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officer, or chief executive officer. They have to fulfill the following basic responsibilities:-
Top-level managers require an extensive knowledge of
management roles and skills.
They have to chalk out the plan and see that plan may be effective
They have to be very aware of external factors.
Their decisions are generally of a long-term nature.
They are responsible for strategic decisions.
Middle managers supervise first-line managers. They also work with first line managers to identify new ways of reaching organizational goals. Very often, the suggestions that they make to top management can dramatically increase organizational performance. They may have titles such as regional manager, project leader, store manager, or division manager. Their basic roles are following:-
Mid-level managers have a specialized understanding of certain managerial tasks.
They are responsible for and carrying out the decisions made by top-level management.
They are responsible for tactical decisions.
First Line Managers.
First line managers are responsible for the daily supervision of non-managerial employees. They are basically responsible for following tasks:-
This level of management ensures that the decisions and plans taken by the other two are carried out.
First Line Managers' decisions are generally short-term but critical for achieving required performance from the working staff.
To achieve different organizational goals, these managers from different levels need to focus on their teams, motivate them and get the maximum out of them. Planning, organizing, leading, and controlling are all very important management functions needed to grow a...
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