As defined by Peter Drucker “Management is tasks, management is discipline, but management is also people. Every achievement of management is the achievement of a manager. Every failure is a failure of a manager.” As per the meaning ‘management is tasks’ explain that management is responsible for planning, coordinating and carrying out many tasks. ‘Management is discipline’ can be explained as set of practices used to maximize the efficiency of the people at work. Guiding and organizing them. ‘Management is also people’ that is a social group under which manager exercises his powers on his subordinates with skills. Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals an environment in which individuals work together efficiently to accomplish selected goals of the firm. There are five main functions of management: * Planning: selecting missions and objectives as well as the actions to achieve them, which requires decision making. * Organizing: establishing an intentional structure of roles for people to fill in an organization. * Staffing: Hiring people on the vacant positions of the organization * Leading: influencing and motivating people to work towards organization goals. * Controlling: measuring and correcting individuals so that they adhere to plans. The aim of all managers should be to create a surplus, by establishing an environment in which people can accomplish group goals with the least amount of time, money, materials and personal dissatisfaction. Another way of achieving the aim of managers is that they must raise productivity of individuals by making them effective and efficient. “Managing means leading, making things happen through people: for that is relevant to all levels of management, not just the top management.” Sir Peter Parker Managers have formal authority and status as per the level of hierarchy and have to perform many different roles. * Interpersonal roles which deal with the relations with other people in the organization. The manager is a symbol and represents the organization in matters of formality. He has the authority in which he is responsible for hiring, and influencing and guiding subordinates. He has to involve in relationships other than his own department e.g to other departments or outside the organization. * Informational roles relates to the sources and communication of information. He has to monitor the information to develop an understanding of the organization and its environment. He can communicate information obtained from outside the organization to inside and to his subordinates. * The decisional role involves the making of strategic decisions, correcting unexpected situations, allocating resources to achieve efficiency in the organization and negotiating with other individuals.
The basic question to be asked is; what is leadership? Can you develop it? Is it by birth or can be developed? The action, style or characteristics of a leader good in one context, could be ineffective in another. Leadership is usually associated with the qualities, abilities, skills and the influence on others. It can be further explained by the ability to influence others to accomplish some objectives. That is a leader leads the group to accomplish certain goals. Leadership is usually contrasted with management. Management is defined as getting things done from others while leadership is getting others to do things. Therefore leadership is related to motivating and influencing others. It involves communicating, interacting and managing relationships within an organization to move towards ones highest inspirations. Effective leadership involves:
* Considering the health and ecology of the larger systems of which the leader is a member. * Managing the balance of relationships and tasks in the achievement of organizational outcomes within a larger system. * Managing tasks and...