FIRST YEAR ENGLISH LAB MANUAL
It is useful for JNT University Engineering Students.
DEPT. OF ENGLISH
JOGINPALLY B.R ENGINEERING COLLEGE
Yenkapally (v), moinabad (m), R.R. Dist
INTRODUCTION: Language has a very important social purpose, because it is mainly used for linguistic communication. Linguistics is a systematic study of language. Phonetics is a branch of linguistics and it is the branch dealing with the medium of speech. It deals with the production, transmission and reception of the sounds of human speech.
To speak we use a special mechanism which produces sound with the help of energizer, a vibrator and resonators. The energizer in reality is the exhaled breath, the vocal cords act as the vibrators and the resonators are the passages of the throat, mouth and nose. Sound is produced by allowing the air to pass from the lungs through the wind-pipe to the mouth or the nose, and by using the tongue and lips in various positions letting it escape. When the air escapes through the nose either wholly or partially, nasal sounds are produced or when it.
ORGANS OF SPEECH
Most sounds of most languages are produced with a pulmonic aggressive air stream mechanism. The air that we breathe out comes out of the lungs. Before it gets out into the outer atmosphere, various organs in our body convert it into speech sounds. These organs are called the organs of speech. The organs of speech can be divided into the following three groups. 1.The respiratory system: This comprises the lungs, the muscles of the chest and windpipe or trachea. 2. The phonatory system: This comprises the larynx.
3.The articulatory system: This comprises the nose, the teeth, the tongue, the roof of the mouth and the lips Sounds during which the air escapes only through the nose are called nasal sounds. To ascertain whether a sound is oral or nasal, we can block the nostrils while articulating the sound. If the sound stops, the sound is nasal. If we can continue to produce the sound even after the blocking the nostrils then the sound is oral. Egg sss, mmm
NEAT LABELLED DIAGRAM OF THE ORGANS OF SPEECH
DESCRIPTION OF CONSONANTS
Sounds that are not vowels are called consonants. In their production there is an audible friction or modification at some place in the mouth. Consonants are classified on the basis of
a. place of articulation
b. manner of articulation
A consonant is usually, described taking into account place of articulation and its manner of articulation. Manner of articulation refers to the stricture involved and plosive, affricates, nasal, fricatives etc, are labels given to consonants according to their manner of articulation.
PLACE OF ARTICULATION
According to the place of articulation (where in the mouth or throat the sound is produced) the consonants are:
|Bilabial: with both lips |/p/, /b/, /m/ | |Labiodental: between lower lip and upper teeth |/f/, /v/ | |Dental/Interdental: between the teeth |/[pic]/, /[pic]/ | |Alveolar: the ridge behind the upper front teeth |/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/,| | |/l/, /r/ | |Alveo-palatal (or post-alveolar): it is the area between |/[pic]/, /[pic]/, | |the alveolar ridge and the hard palate |/[pic]/, /[pic]/ | |Palatal: hard palate, or 'roof' of the mouth' |/j/ | |Velar: the soft palate or velum |/k/, /g/, /[pic]/ | |Glottal (laryngeal): space between the vocal cords |/h/ |...
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