SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF PAKISTAN
Pakistan is a resource rich country but due to incompetent politicians, strong generals, weak judiciary, conservative Ulemas and controlled media, it is facing socio-economic, political and religious challenges.
• Problems Faced By Pakistan At The Time Of Inception
From its very inception, Pakistan faced a large number of problems. Some of the initial difficulties were
1. Choice of Capital and Establishment of Government
The first problem that Pakistan had to face was to choose a capital to form a Government and to establish a secretariat. Karachi was chosen as the capital of Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam took the office of the Governor General, Liaquat Ali Khan was appointed as Prime Minister and a Cabinet of experienced persons was selected. Arrangements were to be made to bring the officials who had opted for Pakistan from Delhi to Karachi.
2. Unfair Boundary Distribution
A boundary commission was set up under a British Chairman, Sir Cyril Redcliff. He misused his powers and handed over Muslims majority areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozpur and Junagadh to India hence providing them a gateway to Kashmir. Quaid-e-Azam called it an unjust, incomprehensible and even perverse award.
3. The Massacre of Muslim Refugees in India
On the birth of Pakistan, Hindus and Sikhs became more furious. In a planned move, Muslims properties were set on fire and they were compelled to leave India for Pakistan with nothing but their lives. Millions of refugees were killed before they reached Pakistan. Many migrants were looted and had to be provided boarding immediately as they reached Pakistan.
4. Division of Military and Financial Assets
In order to embarrass Pakistan financially, India did a lot of honesty in the matters of Pakistan which were concerned with its benefits. Pakistan was promised to get Rs. 750 million but the Indian Government refused to give. Pakistan received only 200 million. Pakistan also did not receive the due share of the military assets. This dishonest attitude put Pakistan into great difficulties.
5. Canal Water Dispute
Most of the rivers flowing in Pakistan have their origin in India. In 1948, India stopped water supply to Pakistani canals to damage the Pakistani agriculture. However on 9th September, 1960 on agreement called Indus Basin Treaty was signed between the two countries.
6. Kashmir Dispute
Kashmir dispute is the most important and unsolved problem. Kashmir is the natural part of Pakistan because at the time of partition 85% of the Kashmir's total population was Muslim. The Hindu Dogra Rule, who was secretly with the Government of India, declared Kashmir as a part of India. Pakistan has continuously insisted that Kashmir must get their right of self determination but due to non-cooperation of India, Kashmir issue still remain unsolved.
7. Constitutional Problem
The constituent assembly failed to frame a constitution even in eight years. Lack of a permanent constitution created chances of unscrupulous interference in democratic progress of Pakistan.
8. Annexation of Princely States
All Indian princely states were given the right to link up with either of dominions. However, the fate of some states remained undecided. The Muslim Nawab governing Junagadh favoured in acceding to Pakistan. But Indian Government sent Army troops towards Junagadh and occupied the State by force in November, 1947. Hyderabad Deccan was the largest and richest state ruled by Muslim leader Nizam who decided to remain independent. But pressure tactics began to the applied by Indian Government and Mountbatten. India attacked Hyderabad on 13th September 1948 and forcibly annexed this state to India.
9. Economic Problems
When Pakistan came into existence, it mostly consisted of economically backward and underdeveloped areas. The agricultural system was obsolete and outdated which added to the economic backwardness of the...
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