In 2004, Enterprise Rent-a-Car supported a study by the National Urban League that surveyed over 5,500 American workers, including managers and CEOs. The results revealed that fewer than half of the executives surveyed believe that their own companies are effectively managing diversity. In addition, almost 60 per cent feel partly at fault for not being sufficiently involved in workplace diversity training (Fisher, 2004). The diversity training field forms part of a multibillion dollar training industry resulting primarily from recent demographic shifts, increasing globalization, and anti-workplace discrimination laws. Laws and Regulations
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces all federal laws prohibiting job discrimination in the United States. Perhaps the most notable of these is Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) that prohibits all employment discrimination based on race, religion, sex, color, or national origin. In addition to Title VII, there are a host of federal laws that prohibit job discrimination, addressing such issues as equal compensation and employment opportunities, unbiased job assignments, equitable promotions as well as age, disability, and sex-based employment discrimination (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2005). These regulations have unquestionably fueled a greater need for organizational diversity training. Globalization and Increased Competition in International Markets
Diversity in the workplace is a demographic phenomenon affecting not only U.S. organizations, but also multinational companies and institutions in countries across the globe (Littlefield, 1995). Additional business forces, such as global competition, are driving diversity in the majority of large organizations despite their geographic location. Companies are increasingly conducting business in the global arena and not providing the appropriate diversity training programs can be a very costly mistake. Shifting Demographic Trends
Society in general is changing significantly and recent shifts in demographic trends have the potential to affect several facets of organizational management. In the USA, the workforce is increasingly comprised of men and women from all races, ethnic backgrounds, ages, lifestyles, sexual orientations, and religious beliefs. The surge of immigration in recent years has also contributed to a more culturally diverse workplace environment, a trend that is likely to continue (Keeton, 2003). Training has proven to be one of the most successful strategies to effectively manage workplace diversity (Wentling and Palma-Rivas, 1999). Diversity Training--Both Sides of the Coin
A significant number of U.S. organizations have yet to implement effective diversity training programs for their employees. While many benefits are associated with these programs, considerable skepticism still exists about whether diversity training really helps to lessen cultural tensions in the workplace or if it just serves to aggravate them (Hemphill & Haines, 1997). When diversity training is not implemented correctly, employees may find it to be too basic and patronizing, and could ultimately resent the insinuation that they need to be trained on how to interact with other employees. Many individuals are also of the opinion that highlighting diversity within an organization tends to result in more harm than good. The primary goal of diversity training is to eliminate stereotypes in the workplace. However, there is a risk that...