1.1 Distributed System: Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system consists of multiple computers that communicate through a computer network. The computers interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal. A computer program that runs in a distributed system is called a distributed program, and distributed programming is the process of writing such programs. Distributed computing also refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems. In distributed computing, a problem is divided into many tasks, each of which is solved by one or more computers, which communicate with each other by message passing. The word distributed in terms such as "distributed system", "distributed programming", and "distributed algorithm" originally referred to computer networks where individual computers were physically distributed within some geographical area. The terms are nowadays used in a much wider sense, even referring to autonomous processes that run on the same physical computer and interact with each other by message passing. While there is no single definition of a distributed system, the following defining properties are commonly used. * There are several autonomous computational entities, each of which has its own local memory. * The entities communicate with each other by message passing.In this article, the computational entities are called computers or nodes. 1.2 Cloud Computing: When you store your photos online instead of on your home computer, or use webmail or a social networking site, you are using a “cloud computing” service. If you are an organization, and you want to use, for example, an online invoicing service instead of updating the in-house one you have been using for many years, that online invoicing service is a “cloud computing” service. Cloud computing refers to the delivery of computing resources over the Internet. Instead of keeping data on your own hard drive or updating applications for your needs, you use a service over the Internet, at another location, to store your information or use its applications.
Doing so may give rise to certain privacy implications. For that reason the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada (OPC) has prepared some responses to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs). We have also developed a Fact Sheet that provides detailed information on cloud computing and the privacy challenges it presents. Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services over the Internet. Cloud services allow individuals and businesses to use software and hardware that are managed by third parties at remote locations. Examples of cloud services include online file storage, social networking sites, webmail, and online business applications. The cloud computing model allows access to information and computer resources from anywhere that a network connection is available. Cloud computing provides a shared pool of resources, including data storage space, networks, computer processing power, and specialized corporate and user applications. The following definition of cloud computing has been developed by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
2.1 Distributed System: A distributed system is a piece of software that ensures that a collection of independent computers appears to its users as a single coherent system * A collection of autonomous computers linked by a network using software to produce an integrated computing facility * A distributed system is a collection of autonomous computers linked by a computer network that appear to the users of the system as a single computer. 2.2 Cloud Computing: A model for delivering information technology services in which resources are retrieved from the internet through web-based tools and applications, rather than a direct connection to a server. Data and software packages are...