Development of the Moroccan Economy
The Moroccan economy is known for its macroeconomic stability. Inflation rates have always been relatively low, mainly due to the country’s restrictive currency regime. Morocco has been characterised by moderate to high growth rates. The country has benefited from its low labour cost and strategic location near the European mainland. Morocco has experienced a stronger growth than usual since the year 2000, caused by improved weather conditions, a strong export growth and various liberalizing policies. These liberalizing policies have been introduced by King Mohammed VI in 2003. He came up with a number of economic reforms resulting in a growth of the small modern manufacturing sector and the development of the tourism industry. He has put his main focus on the European Union since the Free Trade Agreement in the year 2000. Morocco’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has steadily gone up since 2002. According to statistics of “Datamonitor 360” the GDP in 2002 was about 40 billion dollar, in 2010 the GDP had grown to approximately 60 billion dollar. That is a rise of 50% in only eight years time. The World Factbook from the CIA mentions that in 2010 Morocco ranked number 58 in the world when it comes to the GDP. The real GDP growth rate has not been negative since 2002. In 2010 Morocco ranked number 77 in the world of real GDP growth. The lowest growth rate was about 2,5% in 2005 and 2007 and peeked with 7,5% in 2006. This could have possibly been caused by the Free Trade Agreement with the United States of America, which was introduced in 2006. I will further explain the results of the Free Trade Agreement with the EU and the USA later on in this chapter.
The three main sectors: industry, service and agriculture, all grew steadily the past ten years. In 2009 the service sector was the biggest sector and contributed 49,4% to the GDP, the industry sector came second with 31,3% followed by the agriculture with 19,2%. Morocco has a profitable industry sector, mainly because of its large amounts of phosphate. Tourism plays a big role in the service sector. The tourism industry has remained vibrant despite the Casablanca bombings in 2003 and 2007. Morocco’s external trade has also been increasing steadily, with only a slight decrease in 2009. However, the total external trade still grew from 25,7 billion dollars in 2002 to 77,6 billion dollars in 2009. This is a growth of 51,9 billion dollars, which is a growth percentage of approximately 202%. Even though Morocco’s economy has been doing well the past decade, the unemployment rate is still relatively high. During the period from 2002 to 2008 the unemployment rate was at least 11%. In 2007 a small decrease of unemployment of 300 thousand took place, still leaving 1,1 million people unemployed. By the end of 2008 the unemployment rate was 9,6%. In 2009 a total of 93,000 new jobs got created resulting in a decrease to 9,1% by the end of 2009.
We can conclude that the overall Moroccan economy has shown a fairly good development, but there is still a lot more to improve. The government has been working on new reforms that should lead to better business conditions in the country.
International Financial Crisis
Morocco together with Algeria and Tunisia has been one of the least affected countries by the international financial crisis. The international financial crisis started with the credit crunch in the US. Morocco has not been affected by this so-called credit crunch, because Morocco does not have the kind of credit that caused the American credit crunch. Besides this Morocco had minimal exposure to foreign assets. Morocco did however get affected by the international financial crisis as soon as it hit Europe. The Western European crisis resulted in diminishing growth rates. The crisis in Europe did not only slow down Moroccan export rates, but also the tourism industry. As European unemployment rates increased, many...