Destination development is important for the growth of tourism. In the future, destinations will have to undergo improvements from the influence of these three prominent factors; Environmental, Societal-cultural and Economical. Each factor has issues that relate to tourism and the future of destinations. Many of the issues raised can be distributed amongst the three factors, making the implications, gradually more important for the future development of destinations. Carbon emissions and the on-going battle with global warming are damaging effects to the environment that destinations will need to overcome to keep an increase in tourism. The rise in disposable income, the ‘age’ of the travelling generation and population increases all impact the societal and cultural factors, important for destination development. The economical side of destination development is to the rise of disposable income and government and politics associated with war and terrorism. As populations become wealthier and healthier, their wants and needs change and this influences their spending habits, tourist patterns, the environment, society and the economy. (Cooper, et al., 2005)
Nearer the end of the 1970’s, the OECD set out a study of environmental stresses associated with touristic activities. The study outlined four main classes of stressor activities including; environmental restructuring which consisted of the construction of major infrastructures e.g. Roads, airports and resorts; waste product generation and the waste that can damage fish production, cause health hazards and reduce the attractiveness of the destination; direct environmental stress like the destruction of coral reefs, vegetation, sand dunes by the presence of tourists and the effects on population dynamics caused by migration, increased urban densities and declining populations in rural areas. (Cooper, et al., 2005) The changing of the climate allows for unpredictable weather extremes that in theory could turn profitable tourist destinations into holiday horror stories. (BBC News, 1999) Popular tourist destinations are in need of developments in the future to persuade and cater for the increasing markets of travellers. A report, done by a Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, highlights some of the aspects of climatic change that could potentially hurt tourism; more days in resorts where the temperature exceeds 40۫C; thinner cloud cover which can lead to higher sunburn and skin cancer risk; Less snowfall and shorter skiing seasons, with the lower lying resorts likely to be most affected; damage to coral reefs and the rising sea levels; Pressures on wild animals and plants that tourists want to see, especially effects on the places in which they live. (BBC News, 1999) Tourism in itself is contributing to the climate change happening globally. Air travel is the fastest growing source that emits the gases that cause climate change. In order to play a part in slowing down global warming, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is recommending that an aviation fuel tax should be introduced, for example, in amongst the European Union and the rest of the world. (BBC News, 1999) Reducing air travel is not an option for poorer countries like the Maldives, Seychelles and Africa, who rely heavily on tourism as it is their major source of income and who need the air travel as their core transportation system. (International Health Tribunal, 2007) Having to undertake new engineering projects and computer simulations take money and skill that is in short supply in many places around the world (International Health Tribunal, 2007) In order to encourage travellers to fly, the destinations themselves need to become environmentally friendly locations. A place where visitors will feel they are helping the environment. Improving energy efficiency in newer buildings (BBC News, 1999) and tourists resorts will make a big impact on the environment and will counter balance the...
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