20th Century Education
As the 19th century was the Progressive era, the 20th century was inclusivism and the idea of education for all. Kindergartens were in most public school programs by 1910. State controlled free public education was the rule. School attendance was mandatory, education was universal. Public schools did not force parents to use the public schools, so parochial schools and other private schools were viable options. All racial, religious and ethnic groups should have access to the same type of education in the same type of setting. Education in the early preschool years flourished with early childhood development programs and on the other end of the spectrum higher education after high school became more attainable for many.
Junior High Schools
1909 - present
began in California
Grades 7-9 to better prepare for high school
1950 - present
Grades 6-8 / designed to meet the needs of preadolescents Education in the Southern States
In 1912, the Southern States made of 34% of the United States' population but received only 3% of the education funding. bullet
de jure school segregation - segregation by law
de facto segregation - segregation defined by society
Founded in 1909
Brown v Board of Education - separate is not equal.
Supreme Court declares de jure school segregation violates the 14th Amendment bullet
Bussing - In 1971, the case of Swann V. Charlotte decided that changing the lines of a school district in order to bus students to integrated school is allowed under the Constitution.
Photo Gallery - Desegregation
On May 17, 1954, Chief Justice Earl Warren announced the court’s unanimous decision: “It is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity…is a right which must be available to all on equal terms. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.” http://www.pbs.org/kcet/publicschool/photo_gallery
"Segregation was wrong when it was forced by White people, and I believe it is still wrong when it is requested by Black people." Coretta Scott King
Milestones in American public education in the 20th Century
Eleanor Roosevelt's thoughts on public education
From 1900 to 1996 the percentage of teenagers who graduated from high school increased from about 6 percent to about 85 percent. By the middle of the 20th century, most states took a more active regulatory role than in the past. States consolidated school districts into larger units with common procedures. In 1940 there were over 117,000 school districts in the United States, but by 1990 the number had decreased to just over 15,000. The states also became much more responsible for financing education. In 1940 local property taxes financed 68 percent of public school expenses, while the states contributed 30 percent. In 1990 local districts and states each contributed 47 percent to public school revenues. The federal government provided most of the remaining funds. (http://www.servintfree.net/~aidmn-ejournal/publications/2001-11/PublicEducationInTheUnitedStates.html).
By the 1920s, the invention of the automobile let states consolidate schools into larger districts. School buses allowed for the expansion of the public school system by transporting students in rural areas to school. The first school buses were horse-drawn. Our modern school bus came about in the 1950s.
In 1925, the Supreme Court ruled, in Pierce v. Society of Sisters, that states could not compel children to attend public schools, and that children could attend private schools instead. Instruction...
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