Brown vs. Board of Education
Mr. Mohammad Khatibloo
November 1, 2010
Brown v. Board of Education
“To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever to be undone” by Chief Justice Earl Warren, Majority Opinion. Imagine you are a seven year old and have to walk one mile to a bus stop by walking through a railroad switching station and then waiting for a school bus to go to a "black elementary school" or a school where only African American children went. This is what happened to Linda Brown, an African American third grader from Topeka, Kansas, even though there was a "white elementary school" only seven blocks away. A "white elementary school" was a school where only white students were able to attend. This research paper will base on the case of Brown vs. Board of Education. Background of the Case
One day Reverend Oliver Brown took his eight-year-old daughter, Linda Carol, for a walk to the Sumner Elementary School located just seven blocks from her house in Topeka, Kansas. After a discussion Brown had with the principal over the enrollment of his daughter, he was informed that she would not be admitted to the school even though she qualified. The reason she was not admitted to the school was because of the color of her skin, Sumner Elementary only accepted Caucasian children. Reverend Brown was not a man who caused trouble, but he did not want his daughter to have to walk six blocks along railroad tracks in order to catch the bus to a rundown black school (Dudley 8). Brown and his family, along with many other African American families wanted to put an end to school segregation. Thirteen African American families of Topeka rallied together and sought out the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP chose Oliver Brown’s family for the upcoming case because he was a minister and a respectable, hard working man. Appointed this case were the NACCP attorney’s Robert Carter and Jack Greenberg, with the guidance and assistance of Thurgood Marshall, who was a major contributor in fighting for equal rights of African Americans and also in charge of the other desegregation cases. The Lawsuit begins
Brown v. Board of Education is measured the mainly noteworthy civil rights court case of the 20th century for the lawful standard it set and for the anticipation it gave to black people all through the nation (Lazear, Edward P. 777-803). The Case began in Topeka on June 25, 1951, being held before the United States District Court of Kansas. The NAACP would struggle in trying to convince the jury that the schools were unequal because both school’s courses and building were of equal standards and although the Sumner school was closer, Topeka still provided busing for the African Americans to get to their school. The NAACP argued that segregated schools sent the message to the black children that they were inferior to white; therefore, the schools were inherently unequal (Brown). The NAACP used psychologist’s as their expert witnesses, who explained how beneficial it would be for children of all races to attend school together because that would help them come together as a unified society later in life. However, the Board of Education’s defense was that, because segregation in Topeka and elsewhere pervaded many other aspects of life, segregated schools simply prepared black children for the segregation they face during adulthood (Brown). Judge Walter Huxman, spoke unanimously for the court and although they felt sympathy for the plaintiffs because of the precedent with Plessey, the court felt “compelled” to rule in favor of the Board of Education (Brown). Although the decision was against the plaintiffs, Huxman attached a “Finding of Fact” to the judgment, it read: “Segregation of...