Delegation is an integral component of the organizing process. Since manager is responsible for the performance of such a large variety of tasks, activities and functions that he cannot perform them all by himself, he assigns a part of work to his subordinates. In doing so he keeps with himself those tasks and functions which he consider crucial to his goal accomplishment and transfer to his subordinates less important work which he need not to do himself. It is through this process of assignments of task and activities to his sub ordinates that he can devote his time, energies and attention to the basic managerial functions of planning coordinating and controlling. The next logical step in the delegation process is the transfer of adequate authority to subordinates so as to enable them to make decisions and to take actions required for the performance of task and achievement of goal assigned to them. Assignment of duties and delegation of authority create an obligation on the part of subordinates to perform adequately and achieve the predetermined goals with optimum efficiency and effectiveness. Delegation is thus the primary mechanism through which organizational work is distributed among its employees, authority is vested in them for the performance of assigned task and obligation is imposed on them to perform adequately. It results in the establishment of hierarchy of tasks and authority - responsibility relationship throughout the organisation. Bases of Delegation:
Delegation bases may be based on the following threefold analysis
1. Activity analysis
2. Decision analysis
3. Relations analysis
1. Activity analysis: Drucker suggest that activity should involve identification of key activities. This can be done by answering three questions. Decision Analysis: An important step in delegation is transfer of adequate authority to subordinates in order to enable them to perform effectively. This involves analysis of decision involved in the duties assigned to them. Decision should be analysed on the following basis: i) Degree of futurity ii) impact of decision iii) quantitative factors involved in decision and iv) Periodicity of decisions. The futurity of decision means how long in to the future a decision would commit the company. The decision with longer futurity have to be made by the manager himself, and authority for such decisions cannot be delegated by him to his subordinates. Relation Analysis: Relation analysis will indicates to manager the relationship involved in the performance of activities. Some activities involve interaction with number of managers in several departments, whereas some other activities involves interaction with in the department itself. Steps Involved in a Delegation Process
Delegation is a management practice that involves disbursement of duties and responsibilities among subordinates to ease down the work pressure at the top. In order to get a deeper understanding of this process. Delegation is effective when handled methodically, following all the steps involved in the process. 1. The process of delegation begins with defining of the task in question. Here is a short list of questions that must be answered: 1. What does task involve?
2. What are the skills required to perform the task? 3. What resources are required to complete the task? 4. How can task performance be measured?
5. What amount of supervision or monitoring is required? 6. What are the end results to be achieved, that will mark the completion of the task?
1. The next step is to make a list of the potential employees/subordinates to whom the task can be delegated. From this list the best candidate for delegation can be found out, after matching the skill requirements of the task with the skills and abilities of the employees under consideration. There must be enough supportive reasons to justify the choice of the employee.