Toepassing 1. De Europese luchtvaart-industrie
Lees onderstaande beschrijving van de ontwikkelingen in de Europese luchtvaart-industrie in de periode 1990-heden:
- Bespreek aan de hand van het competitie-model van Porter (1980) welke krachten een invloed hebben gehad op de winstgevendheid van de industrie in de periode 1990-heden.
- Duidt voor elke kracht aan wat de verwachte impact is (positief/negatief) op de winstgevendheid van de industrie.
The European Airline industry
In the early 1980s, the European airline industry was highly regulated. During the ten years from 1987 to 1997, the EU gradually liberalized the industry and reduced government intervention. At first after the liberalization, the industry exhibited steady growth. However, many of the large European airlines reported poor performance from the early 2000s onwards and some national carriers including Sabena and Swissair went bankrupt in de same period.
Between 1995 and 2004 the average annual industry growth was a moderate 5% and industry growth was even negative at minus 5% following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. The industry was fragmented with a combination of existing state-owned inefficient national carriers and some new entrants after the liberalization wave. Services delivered by different airlines were virtually identical. There was a structural excess-capacity problem and on average between 1995 and 2004 only 72% of all seats were filled.
During the liberalization wave, the EU promoted the entry of new airlines by requiring that at least 50% of landing and take-off slots had to be allocated to new airlines. EU also made it possible for all airlines to freely operate any route within Europe. New entrants usually had easy access to capital because loans could easily be securitized by the purchased aircraft, or aircrafts could be leased.
The primary costs for airlines were aircraft depreciation and...