In this paper the approach is to understand the formulation of learning curve theory and objective is to maximize profits and increasing organizational performance for Mario's Pizzeria. The three fundamental assumptions followed by the learning curve theory are total time for completing a task decreases with the increased repetition, improvement percentage decreases with the increased volume of units, and improvement rate gets predictable after some time (Chase, Jacobs & Aquilano, 2006). Application of learning curve theory is strictly related to the process of improving performance of a system by means of repetitive nature over a particular task, operated by an organization or an individual (Ritter & Schooler, 2002).

Mario's Pizzeria Store Layout Simulation

In the Mario's Pizzeria Store Layout scenario starting from the customer(s) entering the Mario's Pizzeria store and flows through the corresponding activities as follows:

The customer arrival ratio between the groups is 60:40. Average customers arriving in Mario's Pizzeria are groups of two and four every seven to nine minutes during peak hours but the uncomfortable close to the upper tolerance of nine minutes. The manual ovens used to prepare the pizza led to long wait times and unsatisfied customer. Balancing the demand for service and the capacity of the system are the difficultly issues at Mario's Pizzeria and long periods of wait time affect Mario Pizzeria's queue lengths, profits, and operating cost. Several changes have to improve efficiency and the first step of improving the efficiency is changing the distribution of tables. Changing the distribution of tables should lead to customers not waiting longer than they should and customers leaving without service. Below is a metric chart for Mario's Pizzeria. Performance Process...

...Learning Curve Analysis
EATABLES
A Learning Curve is an industrial tool or formula for the expected reduction of unit costs for large quantity production of components. Learning curves draw from historic building experience to determine expected reductions in labor and materials costs. Expected reductions can be gauged from the labor and materials content of the manufactured item, plus the number of doublings of the initial production run. Estimators will apply learning curves under guidance from management. Cost estimates need to reflect the observed characteristic that costs will vary in proportion to the quantity produced. Quantity discounts on commodities or on commercially available components is one aspect. The amortization of fixed set-up or tooling costs over the production run for a forging or casting application is another. The most widely accepted cost-estimating tool for adjusting cost to volume is the learning curve. This assumes that repetitive production costs will decrease due to learning by the manufacturing staff - by increasing yields, increasing operation throughput, improved tooling, and substituting equipment for labor, eliminating unnecessary steps, and process improvement and substitution.
THE LEARNING CURVETHEORY:
The application of learning curvetheory is precisely connected to the process of improving...

...Running head: LEARNING CURVETHEORY
Learning CurveTheory
Learning CurveTheory
Learning curves play an important role in today's marketplace. The main principle behind learning curves is that the more times an individual or organization repeats a process, there will be an increase in experience and efficiency. A learning curve graphically represents the rate of improvement in performing a task or function over time (Learning Curve, 2006). This paper will provide a discussion about applying the learning curvetheory concepts by testing alternatives to a process. Alternatives to a process will be tested and process performance data will be measured for profit in the Pizza Store Layout simulation to show the affects of learning curvetheory.
Application of the Learning CurveTheory
The Pizza Store Layout simulation provides an opportunity to test alternative operating parameters by simulating the output affects of a change in input parameters that can be used to demonstrate the learning curvetheory. The learning curvetheory is has three concepts; each time the task is repeated, the amount of time required to perform the task also decreases; as more units are produced, improvement...

...Adrian Zwierzchowski
2 IB
Investigation – Von Koch’s snowflake curve
In this investigation I am going to consider a limit curve named after the Swedish mathematician Niels Fabian Helge von Koch. I will try to investigate the perimeter and area of Von Koch’s curve.
[pic]
The Koch’s curve has an infinite length because each time the steps above are performed on each line segment of the figure there are four times as many line segments, the length of each being one-third the length of the segments in the previous stage.
First of all I am going to suppose c1 has a perimeter of 3 units. I will try to find the perimeter of c2, c3, c4 and c5.
c1 s1 = 1 (s – side length)
c2 s2 = 1/3
c3 s3 = 1/9
c4 s4 = 1/27
c5 s5 = 1/81
If the original line segment had length s, then after the first step each line segment has a length s · ⅓. For the second step, each segment has a length s ·(⅓)2, and so on.
Assuming a unit length for the starting straight line segment, we obtain the following figures:
|iteration |segment |segment |curve |
|number |length |number |length |
|1 |1 |1 |1.00 |
|2 |⅓ |4 |1.33 |
|3 |1/9 |16 |1.77 |
|4...

...SUPPLEMENT
Learning Curve Analysis
G
LEARNING GOALS
After reading this supplement,
you should be able to:
In today’s dynamic workplace, change occurs rapidly. Where
there is change, there also is learning. With instruction and
repetition, workers learn to perform jobs more efficiently and
1. Explain the concept of a
learning curve and how volume
is related to unit costs.
2. Develop a learning curve, using
the logarithmic model.
3. Demonstrate the use of learning
curves for managerial decision
making.
thereby reduce the number of direct labor hours per unit.
Like workers, organizations learn. Organizational learning
involves gaining experience with products and processes,
achieving greater efficiency through automation and other
capital investments, and making other improvements in
administrative methods or personnel. Productivity improvements may be gained from better work methods, tools, product design, or supervision, as well as from individual worker
learning. These improvements mean that existing standards
must be continually evaluated and new ones set.
G.1
G.2
SUPPLEMENT G
>
LEARNING CURVE ANALYSIS
<
> THE LEARNING EFFECT <
organizational learning
The process of gaining experience with
products and processes, achieving
greater efficiency through automation
and other capital investments, and
making other improvements in
administrative...

...APPLICATIONS
The learning curve: from aircraft to spacecraft?
instructions, the components, and how to assemble them. In addition, you may also lack confidence in your ability to produce an acceptable product. The second one, however, will take you less time, as you will be more familiar with the instructions, the components, and the assembly procedures. You will also be confident of your ability to assemble this product. The third one will take even less time, as you will have learned from your earlier mistakes and determined more efficient assembly procedures. That is the learning effect. complete tasks in space etc. The phenomenon observed by Wright and Crawford is now being used for extra terrestrial activities!
This article on the learning curve: • explains the learning effect; • identifies sectors where it can be used; • explains how it is calculated; • explains, with examples, how it can be used for planning, control and decision-making; • discusses the other factors that have to be considered in relation to its use.
Learning curve model
Wright observed that the cumulative average time per unit decreases by a fixed percentage each time cumulative production doubles over time. The following table illustrates this effect: Cumulative output 1 unit 2 units 4 units 8 units Cumulative time 1,000 hrs 1,800 hrs 3,240 hrs 5,832 hrs Average time 1,000 hrs 900 hrs 810 hrs 729 hrs
Cost reduction tool?
It is important to...

...percent of peoples’ incomes. (a) Would the demand for apartments in this area be relatively inelastic or relatively elastic? State why. (b) Would the supply of apartments in this area be relatively inelastic or relatively elastic? State why.
1
(c) Draw the demand and supply curves as you have described them, showing the initial equilibrium price and quantity. Label carefully. (d) Now assume the government creates a rent supplement program. Under this program, the renter is required to pay 30% of income in rent. Any additional rent is paid by the government. For example, a low-income person with an income of $1,000 a month would be required to pay $300 in rent (30%). If the rent is $500, the other $200 would be paid by the government. Analyze the results of this program. Show the changes on the graph and explain what will result. Who gains and who loses from this program? (e) Instead, now assume that the government decides to provide a building subsidy to people who build apartments in this low-income area. A certain percent of their costs will be paid by the government. Analyze the results of this program. Show the results on the graph and explain what will result. 2. Assume that the demand curve for paper of a certain type is given by Qd = 200 − 5p, where Qd is the number of pounds demanded per year and p is the price per pound. The supply of function of this type of paper is given by Qs = 40 + 3p, where Qs is the number of pounds...

...marginal utility is never negative.
TRUE
FALSE
2. An individual's Engel curve can be derived from the price-consumption curve.
TRUE
FALSE
3. “U.S.A. should reform its health care system” is a good example of a positive statement.
TRUE
FALSE
4. Consumer surplus is a cardinal measure.
TRUE
FALSE
5. The substitution effect measures the effect of a price change on consumption, keeping
utility constant.
TRUE
FALSE
6. The compensated demand curve is steeper than the uncompensated demand curve
when a good is normal.
TRUE
FALSE
7. An increase in income will shift the Engel curve to the right.
TRUE
FALSE
8. The assumption of diminishing marginal utility is violated for perfect substitutes.
TRUE
FALSE
9. The slope of the indifference curve tells us how much money we need to forgo in order
to buy one more unit of good X.
TRUE
FALSE
10. Daniel consumes pizza (x-axis) and sushi (y-axis). The price of pizza is $3 a slice and the
price of a sushi is $6. The MRS at Daniel’s current consumption bundle is 1/3. To
maximize utility Daniel should consume less sushi and more pizza.
TRUE
FALSE
PART II – SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
1. Harold regards pizza (x-axis) and burgers (y-axis) as imperfect substitutes. The price of
burgers decreases and Harold consumes the same amount of pizza.
a. Graph this scenario and mark the...

...The Phillips Curve and the Philippines
According to Cristeta B. Bagsic, the Phillips Curve “depicts the trade-off between inflation and unemployment rate” (“The Phillips Curve and Inflation Forecasting: The Case of the Philippines”). Nowadays, the relationship depicted by the Phillips curve is specified in the following equation:
πt = πe – γ(UR – UR*) + v
where πt is the inflation rate, πe is the expected inflation, γ is a parameter, UR is the unemployment rate, UR* is the natural rate of unemployment (NRU), and v is a supply shock variable. So while the importance of the negative relationship between unemployment and inflation was obvious enough from the beginning, it is now also apparent that there are other factors that influence the behavior of the Phillips Curve. It is beyond crucial that these additional factors be understood and measured well, if they are to be used in maneuvering developing economies such as the economy of the Philippines.
Perhaps the most notable addition to the basic inflation rate-unemployment relationship is the expected inflation or πe. What can be taken from the equation above is that there is a positive relationship between this expected inflation and the actual inflation rate. This is because the expectations involved are those of workers who are assumed to be anticipating rises in the inflation rate. When expecting a rise in inflation rate (for whatever reason),...