A. BASIC CONCEPTS
A curriculum is a set of courses or a plan for a particular area of study. Curriculum Curriculum is an organized program of learning, usually segregated by subject area, composed of four main categories: content, instruction, assessment, and context. Curriculum content can be understood as the information and skills students should learn and eventually know by studying the material. The instruction of curriculum refers to the way the course content is taught to students, perhaps through lectures amd class discussions, for example. Assessment is an important element of curriculum because it establishes how students will be measured on performance.
A curriculum planning is an advance arrangement of learning opportunities for a particular population of learners. Curriculum planning is the process whereby theirs arrangements of curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created. It occurs when school faculties plan to fit new programs into existing ones and as the teacher’s responsible work together and individuality to arrange specific learning situations for the pupils they teach. Curriculum planning is the process of preparing for the duties of teaching, deciding upon goals and emphases, determining curriculum content ,selecting learning resource and classroom procedures, evaluating progress, and looking toward next steps.
Curriculum development is defined is the process of selecting, organizing, executing and evaluating learning experience on the basis of the needs, abilities, and interest of the learners and the nature of the society or community. It takes into consideration the following factors: 1). Nature of society which includes the cultural heritage, the needs and demands as well as the economic , social, political, cultural, moral and other problems of the people 2). The interest, the needs, previous experience and problems of the learners, and 3). The educational and psychological and psychological principles based on the finding of scientific studies and experimentation
It is also a continuous process since we can never exhaust the possibilities of improving the teaching learning situation.
Evaluation of curriculum presents the final stage inside cyclic process of improvement and development of curriculum. Without evaluation procedure it would be hard to imagine monitoring of institution progress toward desired needs. This process is necessary to provide the evidences that institution made a step in the right direction, as well as useful information to stakeholders. It helps in the process of identification of problems inside curriculum and institution, solving of problems and redesigning of certain aspects of curriculum. Evaluation can be performed as short-term and long-term evaluation. Short-term evaluation has a role of “friendly” criticism, while the long term evaluation is a crucial one, with much deeper impact. Department for quality assurance is usually in charge for conducting of such procedures and it is up to them to decide about many aspects of this process. Evaluation of curriculum can be made through evaluation of many different aspects as: * Psychological and interpersonal skill
* Continuing learning
* Professional satisfaction
* Practice behavior
* Educational achievement and cognitive development
* Institutional issues
* Student passing rates
* Making of clinical mistakes
* Clinical problem solving
* Educational cost per student
* Cost efficiency of graduates as practitioners
It is very important to carefully define the appropriate time for evaluation for each of these areas as well as the methods for its measuring. Evaluation will only have full meaning if it is followed by action in order to improve areas which are estimated as weak points of curriculum. This action is obligatory for...